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Chapter 5 MySQL Programs

This chapter provides a brief overview of the MySQL command-line programs provided by Oracle Corporation. It also discusses the general syntax for specifying options when you run these programs. Most programs have options that are specific to their own operation, but the option syntax is similar for all of them. Finally, the chapter provides more detailed descriptions of individual programs, including which options they recognize.

5.1 Overview of MySQL Programs

There are many different programs in a MySQL installation. This раздел provides a brief overview of them. Later разделs provide a more detailed description of each one. Each program's description indicates its invocation syntax and the options that it supports.

Most MySQL distributions include all of these programs, except for those programs that are platform-specific. (For example, the server startup scripts are not used on Windows.) The exception is that RPM distributions are more specialized. There is one RPM for the server, another for client programs, and so forth. If you appear to be missing one or more programs, see Chapter 2, for information on types of distributions and what they contain. It may be that you have a distribution that does not include all programs and you need to install an additional package.

Each MySQL program takes many different options. Most programs provide a --help option that you can use to get a description of the program's different options. For example, try mysql --help.

You can override default option values for MySQL programs by specifying options on the command line or in an option file. See раздел 5.2, for general information on invoking programs and specifying program options.

The MySQL server, mysqld, is the main program that does most of the work in a MySQL installation. The server is accompanied by several related scripts that assist you in starting and stopping the server:

Several programs perform setup operations during MySQL installation or upgrading:

  • comp_err

    This program is used during the MySQL build/installation process. It compiles error message files from the error source files. See раздел 5.4.1.

  • mysql_secure_installation

    This program enables you to improve the security of your MySQL installation. See раздел 5.4.2.

  • mysql_ssl_rsa_setup

    This program creates the SSL certificate and key files and RSA key-pair files required to support secure connections, if those files are missing. Files created by mysql_ssl_rsa_setup can be used for secure connections using SSL or RSA. See раздел 5.4.3.

  • mysql_tzinfo_to_sql

    This program loads the time zone tables in the mysql database using the contents of the host system zoneinfo database (the set of files describing time zones). See раздел 5.4.4.

  • mysql_upgrade

    This program is used after a MySQL upgrade operation. It checks tables for incompatibilities and repairs them if necessary, and updates the grant tables with any changes that have been made in newer versions of MySQL. See раздел 5.4.5.

MySQL client programs that connect to the MySQL server:

MySQL administrative and utility programs:

MySQL program-development utilities:

Miscellaneous utilities:

Oracle Corporation also provides the MySQL Workbench GUI tool, which is used to administer MySQL servers and databases, to create, execute, and evaluate queries, and to migrate schemas and data from other relational database management systems for use with MySQL. Additional GUI tools include MySQL Notifier and MySQL for Excel.

MySQL client programs that communicate with the server using the MySQL client/server library use the following environment variables.

Environment VariableMeaning
MYSQL_UNIX_PORT The default Unix socket file; used for connections to localhost
MYSQL_TCP_PORT The default port number; used for TCP/IP connections
MYSQL_PWDThe default password
MYSQL_DEBUG Debug trace options when debugging
TMPDIR The directory where temporary tables and files are created

For a full list of environment variables used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.9.

Use of MYSQL_PWD is insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1.

5.2 Using MySQL Programs

5.2.1 Invoking MySQL Programs

To invoke a MySQL program from the command line (that is, from your shell or command prompt), enter the program name followed by any options or other arguments needed to instruct the program what you want it to do. The following commands show some sample program invocations. shell> represents the prompt for your command interpreter; it is not part of what you type. The particular prompt you see depends on your command interpreter. Typical prompts are $ for sh, ksh, or bash, % for csh or tcsh, and C:\> for the Windows command.com or cmd.exe command interpreters.

shell> mysql --user=root test
shell> mysqladmin extended-status variables
shell> mysqlshow --help
shell> mysqldump -u root personnel
Arguments that begin with a single or double dash (-, --) specify program options. Options typically indicate the type of connection a program should make to the server or affect its operational mode. Option syntax is described in раздел 5.2.3.

Nonoption arguments (arguments with no leading dash) provide additional information to the program. For example, the mysql program interprets the first nonoption argument as a database name, so the command mysql --user=root test indicates that you want to use the test database.

Later разделs that describe individual programs indicate which options a program supports and describe the meaning of any additional nonoption arguments.

Some options are common to a number of programs. The most frequently used of these are the --host (or -h), --user (or -u), and --password (or -p) options that specify connection parameters. They indicate the host where the MySQL server is running, and the user name and password of your MySQL account. All MySQL client programs understand these options; they enable you to specify which server to connect to and the account to use on that server. Other connection options are --port (or -P) to specify a TCP/IP port number and --socket (or -S) to specify a Unix socket file on Unix (or named pipe name on Windows). For more information on options that specify connection options, see раздел 5.2.2.

You may find it necessary to invoke MySQL programs using the path name to the bin directory in which they are installed. This is likely to be the case if you get a program not found error whenever you attempt to run a MySQL program from any directory other than the bin directory. To make it more convenient to use MySQL, you can add the path name of the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables you to run a program by typing only its name, not its entire path name. For example, if mysql is installed in /usr/local/mysql/bin, you can run the program by invoking it as mysql, and it is not necessary to invoke it as /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql.

Consult the documentation for your command interpreter for instructions on setting your PATH variable. The syntax for setting environment variables is interpreter-specific. (Some information is given in раздел 5.2.10.) After modifying your PATH setting, open a new console window on Windows or log in again on Unix so that the setting goes into effect.

5.2.2 Connecting to the MySQL Server

This раздел describes how to establish a connection to the MySQL server. For additional information if you are unable to connect, see раздел 7.2.8.

For a client program to be able to connect to the MySQL server, it must use the proper connection parameters, such as the name of the host where the server is running and the user name and password of your MySQL account. Each connection parameter has a default value, but you can override them as necessary using program options specified either on the command line or in an option file.

The examples here use the mysql client program, but the principles apply to other clients such as mysqldump, mysqladmin, or mysqlshow.

This command invokes mysql without specifying any connection parameters explicitly:

shell> mysql
Because there are no parameter options, the default values apply:

  • The default host name is localhost. On Unix, this has a special meaning, as described later.

  • The default user name is ODBC on Windows or your Unix login name on Unix.
  • No password is sent if neither -p nor --password is given.
  • For mysql, the first nonoption argument is taken as the name of the default database. If there is no such option, mysql does not select a default database.

To specify the host name and user name explicitly, as well as a password, supply appropriate options on the command line:

shell> mysql --host=localhost --user=myname --password=mypass mydb
shell> mysql -h localhost -u myname -pmypass mydb
For password options, the password value is optional:

  • If you use a -p or --password option and specify the password value, there must be no space between -p or --password= and the password following it.

  • If you use a -p or --password option but do not specify the password value, the client program prompts you to enter the password. The password is not displayed as you enter it. This is more secure than giving the password on the command line. Other users on your system may be able to see a password specified on the command line by executing a command such as ps auxw. See раздел 7.1.2.1.

As just mentioned, including the password value on the command line can be a security risk. To avoid this problem, specify the --password or -p option without any following password value:

shell> mysql --host=localhost --user=myname --password mydb
shell> mysql -h localhost -u myname -p mydb
When the password option has no password value, the client program prints a prompt and waits for you to enter the password. (In these examples, mydb is not interpreted as a password because it is separated from the preceding password option by a space.)

On some systems, the library routine that MySQL uses to prompt for a password automatically limits the password to eight characters. That is a problem with the system library, not with MySQL. Internally, MySQL does not have any limit for the length of the password. To work around the problem, change your MySQL password to a value that is eight or fewer characters long, or put your password in an option file.

On Unix, MySQL programs treat the host name localhost specially, in a way that is likely different from what you expect compared to other network-based programs. For connections to localhost, MySQL programs attempt to connect to the local server by using a Unix socket file. This occurs even if a --port or -P option is given to specify a port number. To ensure that the client makes a TCP/IP connection to the local server, use --host or -h to specify a host name value of 127.0.0.1, or the IP address or name of the local server. You can also specify the connection protocol explicitly, even for localhost, by using the --protocol=TCP option. For example:

shell> mysql --host=127.0.0.1
shell> mysql --protocol=TCP
The --protocol option enables you to establish a particular type of connection even when the other options would normally default to some other protocol.

If the server is configured to accept IPv6 connections, clients can connect over IPv6 using --host=::1. See раздел 6.1.9.

On Windows, you can force a MySQL client to use a named-pipe connection by specifying the --pipe or --protocol=PIPE option, or by specifying . (period) as the host name. If named-pipe connections are not enabled, an error occurs. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe if you do not want to use the default pipe name.

Connections to remote servers always use TCP/IP. This command connects to the server running on remote.example.com using the default port number (3306):

shell> mysql --host=remote.example.com
To specify a port number explicitly, use the --port or -P option:
shell> mysql --host=remote.example.com --port=13306
You can specify a port number for connections to a local server, too. However, as indicated previously, connections to localhost on Unix will use a socket file by default. You will need to force a TCP/IP connection as already described or any option that specifies a port number will be ignored.

For this command, the program uses a socket file on Unix and the --port option is ignored:

shell> mysql --port=13306 --host=localhost
To cause the port number to be used, invoke the program in either of these ways:
shell> mysql --port=13306 --host=127.0.0.1
shell> mysql --port=13306 --protocol=TCP
The following list summarizes the options that can be used to control how client programs connect to the server:

  • --host= host_name, -h host_name

    The host where the server is running. The default value is localhost.

  • --password[= pass_val], -p[pass_val]

    The password of the MySQL account. As described earlier, the password value is optional, but if given, there must be no space between -p or --password= and the password following it. The default is to send no password.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. The server must be started with the --enable-named-pipe option to enable named-pipe connections.

  • --port=port_num , -P port_num

    The port number to use for the connection, for connections made using TCP/IP. The default port number is 3306.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    This option explicitly specifies a protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For example, connections on Unix to localhost are made using a Unix socket file by default:

    shell> mysql --host=localhost
    
    To force a TCP/IP connection to be used instead, specify a --protocol option:
    shell> mysql --host=localhost --protocol=TCP
    
    The following table shows the permissible --protocol option values and indicates the platforms on which each value may be used. The values are not case sensitive.

    --protocol ValueConnection Protocol Permissible Operating Systems
    TCP TCP/IP connection to local or remote serverAll
    SOCKET Unix socket file connection to local serverUnix only
    PIPE Named-pipe connection to local or remote serverWindows only
    MEMORY Shared-memory connection to local serverWindows only
  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --socket= file_name, -S file_name

    On Unix, the name of the Unix socket file to use, for connections made using a named pipe to a local server. The default Unix socket file name is /tmp/mysql.sock.

    On Windows, the name of the named pipe to use, for connections to a local server. The default Windows pipe name is MySQL. The pipe name is not case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --enable-named-pipe option to enable named-pipe connections.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl are used for establishing a secure connection to the server using SSL, if the server is configured with SSL support. For details, see раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --user=user_name , -u user_name

    The user name of the MySQL account you want to use. The default user name is ODBC on Windows or your Unix login name on Unix.

It is possible to specify different default values to be used when you make a connection so that you need not enter them on the command line each time you invoke a client program. This can be done in a couple of ways:

  • You can specify connection parameters in the [client] раздел of an option file. The relevant раздел of the file might look like this:

    [client]
    host=host_name
    user=user_name
    password=your_pass
    
    раздел 5.2.6, discusses option files further.
  • You can specify some connection parameters using environment variables. The host can be specified for mysql using MYSQL_HOST. The MySQL user name can be specified using USER (this is for Windows only). The password can be specified using MYSQL_PWD, although this is insecure; see раздел 7.1.2.1. For a list of variables, see раздел 5.9.

5.2.3 Specifying Program Options

There are several ways to specify options for MySQL programs:

  • List the options on the command line following the program name. This is common for options that apply to a specific invocation of the program.

  • List the options in an option file that the program reads when it starts. This is common for options that you want the program to use each time it runs.
  • List the options in environment variables (see раздел 5.2.10). This method is useful for options that you want to apply each time the program runs. In practice, option files are used more commonly for this purpose, but раздел 6.7.3, Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Unix, discusses one situation in which environment variables can be very helpful. It describes a handy technique that uses such variables to specify the TCP/IP port number and Unix socket file for the server and for client programs.

Options are processed in order, so if an option is specified multiple times, the last occurrence takes precedence. The following command causes mysql to connect to the server running on localhost:

shell> mysql -h example.com -h localhost
If conflicting or related options are given, later options take precedence over earlier options. The following command runs mysql in no column names mode:
shell> mysql --column-names --skip-column-names

MySQL programs determine which options are given first by examining environment variables, then by processing option files, and then by checking the command line. This means that environment variables have the lowest precedence and command-line options the highest.

For the server, one exception applies: The mysqld-auto.cnf option file in the data directory is processed last, so it takes precedence even over command-line options.

You can take advantage of the way that MySQL programs process options by specifying default option values for a program in an option file. That enables you to avoid typing them each time you run the program while enabling you to override the defaults if necessary by using command-line options.

5.2.4 Using Options on the Command Line

Program options specified on the command line follow these rules:

  • Options are given after the command name.

  • An option argument begins with one dash or two dashes, depending on whether it is a short form or long form of the option name. Many options have both short and long forms. For example, -? and --help are the short and long forms of the option that instructs a MySQL program to display its help message.
  • Option names are case sensitive. -v and -V are both legal and have different meanings. (They are the corresponding short forms of the --verbose and --version options.)
  • Some options take a value following the option name. For example, -h localhost or --host=localhost indicate the MySQL server host to a client program. The option value tells the program the name of the host where the MySQL server is running.
  • For a long option that takes a value, separate the option name and the value by an = sign. For a short option that takes a value, the option value can immediately follow the option letter, or there can be a space between: -hlocalhost and -h localhost are equivalent. An exception to this rule is the option for specifying your MySQL password. This option can be given in long form as --password=pass_val or as --password. In the latter case (with no password value given), the program prompts you for the password. The password option also may be given in short form as -ppass_val or as -p. However, for the short form, if the password value is given, it must follow the option letter with no intervening space. The reason for this is that if a space follows the option letter, the program has no way to tell whether a following argument is supposed to be the password value or some other kind of argument. Consequently, the following two commands have two completely different meanings:
    shell> mysql -ptest
    shell> mysql -p test
    
    The first command instructs mysql to use a password value of test, but specifies no default database. The second instructs mysql to prompt for the password value and to use test as the default database.
  • Within option names, dash (-) and underscore (_) may be used interchangeably. For example, --skip-grant-tables и --skip_grant_tables are equivalent. (However, the leading dashes cannot be given as underscores.)
  • For options that take a numeric value, the value can be given with a suffix of K, M, or G (either uppercase or lowercase) to indicate a multiplier of 1024, 10242 or 10243. For example, the following command tells mysqladmin to ping the server 1024 times, sleeping 10 seconds between each ping:
    shell> mysqladmin --count=1K --sleep=10 ping
    

Option values that contain spaces must be quoted when given on the command line. For example, the --execute (or -e) option can be used with mysql to pass SQL statements to the server. When this option is used, mysql executes the statements in the option value and exits. The statements must be enclosed by quotation marks. For example, you can use the following command to obtain a list of user accounts:

shell> mysql -u root -p --execute="SELECT User, Host FROM mysql.user"
Enter password: <******
+------+-----------+
| User | Host      |
+------+-----------+
|      | gigan     |
| root | gigan     |
|      | localhost |
| jon  | localhost |
| root | localhost |
+------+-----------+
shell>

The long form (--execute) is followed by an equals sign (=).

If you wish to use quoted values within a statement, you will either need to escape the inner quotation marks, or use a different type of quotation marks within the statement from those used to quote the statement itself. The capabilities of your command processor dictate your choices for whether you can use single or double quotation marks and the syntax for escaping quote characters. For example, if your command processor supports quoting with single or double quotation marks, you can use double quotation marks around the statement, and single quotation marks for any quoted values within the statement.

Multiple SQL statements may be passed in the option value on the command line, separated by semicolons:

shell> mysql -u root -p -e "SELECT VERSION();SELECT NOW()"
Enter password: <******
+---------------------+
| VERSION()           |
+---------------------+
| 5.8.0-m17-debug-log |
+---------------------+
+---------------------+
| NOW()               |
+---------------------+
| 2015-11-05 20:00:20 |
+---------------------+

5.2.5 Program Option Modifiers

Some options are boolean and control behavior that can be turned on or off. For example, the mysql client supports a --column-names option that determines whether or not to display a row of column names at the beginning of query results. By default, this option is enabled. However, you may want to disable it in some instances, such as when sending the output of mysql into another program that expects to see only data and not an initial header line.

To disable column names, you can specify the option using any of these forms:

--disable-column-names
--skip-column-names
--column-names=0
The --disable and --skip prefixes and the =0 suffix all have the same effect: They turn the option off.

The enabled form of the option may be specified in any of these ways:

--column-names
--enable-column-names
--column-names=1
The values ON, TRUE, OFF, and FALSE are also recognized for boolean options (not case sensitive).

If an option is prefixed by --loose, a program does not exit with an error if it does not recognize the option, but instead issues only a warning:

shell> mysql --loose-no-such-option
mysql: WARNING: unknown option '--loose-no-such-option'
The --loose prefix can be useful when you run programs from multiple installations of MySQL on the same machine and list options in an option file. An option that may not be recognized by all versions of a program can be given using the --loose prefix (or loose in an option file). Versions of the program that recognize the option process it normally, and versions that do not recognize it issue a warning and ignore it.

The --maximum prefix is available for mysqld only and permits a limit to be placed on how large client programs can set session system variables. To do this, use a --maximum prefix with the variable name. For example, --maximum-max_heap_table_size=32M prevents any client from making the heap table size limit larger than 32M.

The --maximum prefix is intended for use with system variables that have a session value. If applied to a system variable that has only a global value, an error occurs. For example, with --maximum-query_cache_size=4M, the server produces this error:

Maximum value of 'query_cache_size' cannot be set

5.2.6 Using Option Files

Most MySQL programs can read startup options from option files (sometimes called configuration files). Option files provide a convenient way to specify commonly used options so that they need not be entered on the command line each time you run a program.

To determine whether a program reads option files, invoke it with the --help option. (For mysqld, use --verbose and --help.) If the program reads option files, the help message indicates which files it looks for and which option groups it recognizes.

A MySQL program started with the --no-defaults option reads no option files other than .mylogin.cnf.

A server started with the persisted_globals_load system variable disabled does not read mysqld-auto.cnf.

Many option files are plain text files, created using any text editor. The exceptions are:

  • The .mylogin.cnf file that contains login path options. This is an encrypted file created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7. A login path is an option group that permits only certain options: host, user, password, port and socket. Client programs specify which login path to read from .mylogin.cnf using the --login-path option.

    To specify an alternative login path file name, set the MYSQL_TEST_LOGIN_FILE environment variable. This variable is used by the mysql-test-run.pl testing utility, but also is recognized by mysql_config_editor and by MySQL clients such as mysql, mysqladmin, and so forth.

  • The mysqld-auto.cnf file in the data directory. This JSON-format file contains persisted system variable settings. It is created by the server upon execution of SET PERSIST statements. See раздел 14.7.4.1, SET Syntax for Variable Assignment. Management of mysqld-auto.cnf should be left to the server and not performed manually.

MySQL looks for option files in the order described in the following discussion and reads any that exist. If an option file you want to use does not exist, create it using the appropriate method, as just discussed.

On Windows, MySQL programs read startup options from the files shown in the following table, in the specified order (top files are read first, files read later take precedence).

Table 5.1. Option Files Read on Windows Systems

File NamePurpose
%PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\my.ini, %PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\my.cnfGlobal options
%WINDIR%\my.ini, %WINDIR%\my.cnfGlobal options
C:\my.ini, C:\my.cnf Global options
BASEDIR\my.ini, BASEDIR\my.cnf Global options
defaults-extra-file The file specified with --defaults-extra-file, if any
%APPDATA%\MySQL\.mylogin.cnf Login path options (clients only)
DATADIR\mysqld-auto.cnf Options persisted with SET PERSIST (server only)

In the preceding table, %PROGRAMDATA% represents the file system directory that contains application data for all users on the host. This path defaults to C:\ProgramData on Microsoft Windows Vista and greater, and C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data on older versions of Microsoft Windows.

%WINDIR% represents the location of your Windows directory. This is commonly C:\WINDOWS. Use the following command to determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%
%APPDATA% represents the value of the Windows application data directory. Use the following command to determine its exact location from the value of the APPDATA environment variable:
C:\> echo %APPDATA%
BASEDIR represents the MySQL base installation directory. When MySQL 8.0 has been installed using MySQL Installer, this is typically C:\PROGRAMDIR\MySQL\MySQL 8.0 Server where PROGRAMDIR represents the programs directory (usually Program Files on English-language versions of Windows), See раздел 2.3.3.

DATADIR represents the MySQL data directory. As used to find mysqld-auto.cnf, its default value is the data directory location built in when MySQL was compiled, but can be changed by --datadir specified as an option-file or command-line option processed before mysqld-auto.cnf is processed.

On Unix and Unix-like systems, MySQL programs read startup options from the files shown in the following table, in the specified order (top files are read first, files read later take precedence).

On Unix platforms, MySQL ignores configuration files that are world-writable. This is intentional as a security measure.

Table 5.2. Option Files Read on Unix and Unix-Like Systems

File NamePurpose
/etc/my.cnfGlobal options
/etc/mysql/my.cnfGlobal options
SYSCONFDIR/my.cnfGlobal options
$MYSQL_HOME/my.cnfServer-specific options (server only)
defaults-extra-fileThe file specified with --defaults-extra-file, if any
~/.my.cnfUser-specific options
~/.mylogin.cnfUser-specific login path options (clients only)
DATADIR/mysqld-auto.cnf Options persisted with SET PERSIST (server only)

In the preceding table, ~ represents the current user's home directory (the value of $HOME).

SYSCONFDIR represents the directory specified with the SYSCONFDIR option to CMake when MySQL was built. By default, this is the etc directory located under the compiled-in installation directory.

MYSQL_HOME is an environment variable containing the path to the directory in which the server-specific my.cnf file resides. If MYSQL_HOME is not set and you start the server using the mysqld_safe program, mysqld_safe sets it to BASEDIR, the MySQL base installation directory.

DATADIR represents the MySQL data directory. As used to find mysqld-auto.cnf, its default value is the data directory location built in when MySQL was compiled, but can be changed by --datadir specified as an option-file or command-line option processed before mysqld-auto.cnf is processed.

If multiple instances of a given option are found, the last instance takes precedence, with one exception: For mysqld, the first instance of the --user option is used as a security precaution, to prevent a user specified in an option file from being overridden on the command line.

The following description of option file syntax applies to files that you edit manually. This excludes .mylogin.cnf, which is created using mysql_config_editor and is encrypted, and mysqld-auto.cnf, which the server creates in JSON format.

Any long option that may be given on the command line when running a MySQL program can be given in an option file as well. To get the list of available options for a program, run it with the --help option. (For mysqld, use --verbose and --help.)

The syntax for specifying options in an option file is similar to command-line syntax (see раздел 5.2.4). However, in an option file, you omit the leading two dashes from the option name and you specify only one option per line. For example, --quick and --host=localhost on the command line should be specified as quick and host=localhost on separate lines in an option file. To specify an option of the form --loose-opt_name in an option file, write it as loose-opt_name.

Empty lines in option files are ignored. Nonempty lines can take any of the following forms:

  • #comment, ;comment

    Comment lines start with # or ;. A # comment can start in the middle of a line as well.

  • [group]

    group is the name of the program or group for which you want to set options. After a group line, any option-setting lines apply to the named group until the end of the option file or another group line is given. Option group names are not case sensitive.

  • opt_name

    This is equivalent to --opt_name on the command line.

  • opt_name=value

    This is equivalent to --opt_name=value on the command line. In an option file, you can have spaces around the = character, something that is not true on the command line. The value optionally can be enclosed within single quotation marks or double quotation marks, which is useful if the value contains a # comment character.

Leading and trailing spaces are automatically deleted from option names and values.

You can use the escape sequences \b, \t, \n, \r, \\, and \s in option values to represent the backspace, tab, newline, carriage return, backslash, and space characters. In option files, these escaping rules apply:

  • A backslash followed by a valid escape sequence character is converted to the character represented by the sequence. For example, \s is converted to a space.

  • A backslash not followed by a valid escape sequence character remains unchanged. For example, \S is retained as is.

The preceding rules mean that a literal backslash can be given as \\, or as \ if it is not followed by a valid escape sequence character.

The rules for escape sequences in option files differ slightly from the rules for escape sequences in string literals in SQL statements. In the latter context, if x is not a valid escape sequence character, \x becomes x rather than \x. See раздел 10.1.1.

The escaping rules for option file values are especially pertinent for Windows path names, which use \ as a path name separator. A separator in a Windows path name must be written as \\ if it is followed by an escape sequence character. It can be written as \\ or \ if it is not. Alternatively, / may be used in Windows path names and will be treated as \. Suppose that you want to specify a base directory of C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 in an option file. This can be done several ways. Some examples:

basedir="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0"
basedir="C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 8.0"
basedir="C:/Program Files/MySQL/MySQL Server 8.0"
basedir=C:\\Program\sFiles\\MySQL\\MySQL\sServer\s8.0
If an option group name is the same as a program name, options in the group apply specifically to that program. For example, the [mysqld] and [mysql] groups apply to the mysqld server and the mysql client program, respectively.

The [client] option group is read by all client programs (but not by mysqld). This enables you to specify options that apply to all clients. For example, [client] is the appropriate group to use to specify the password for connecting to the server. (But make sure that the option file is accessible only by yourself, so that other people cannot discover your password.) Be sure not to put an option in the [client] group unless it is recognized by all client programs that you use. Programs that do not understand the option quit after displaying an error message if you try to run them.

Here is a typical global option file:

[client]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
key_buffer_size=16M
max_allowed_packet=8M

[mysqldump]
quick
Here is a typical user option file:
[client]
# The following password will be sent to all standard MySQL clients
password="my password"

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
connect_timeout=2
To create option groups to be read only by mysqld servers from specific MySQL release series, use groups with names of [mysqld-5.7], [mysqld-8.0], and so forth. The following group indicates that the sql_mode setting should be used only by MySQL servers with 8.0.x version numbers:
[mysqld-8.0]
sql_mode=TRADITIONAL
It is possible to use !include directives in option files to include other option files and !includedir to search specific directories for option files. For example, to include the /home/mydir/myopt.cnf file, use the following directive:
!include /home/mydir/myopt.cnf
To search the /home/mydir directory and read option files found there, use this directive:
!includedir /home/mydir
MySQL makes no guarantee about the order in which option files in the directory will be read.

Any files to be found and included using the !includedir directive on Unix operating systems must have file names ending in .cnf. On Windows, this directive checks for files with the .ini or .cnf extension.

Write the contents of an included option file like any other option file. That is, it should contain groups of options, each preceded by a [group] line that indicates the program to which the options apply.

While an included file is being processed, only those options in groups that the current program is looking for are used. Other groups are ignored. Suppose that a my.cnf file contains this line:

!include /home/mydir/myopt.cnf
And suppose that /home/mydir/myopt.cnf looks like this:
[mysqladmin]
force

[mysqld]
key_buffer_size=16M
If my.cnf is processed by mysqld, only the [mysqld] group in /home/mydir/myopt.cnf is used. If the file is processed by mysqladmin, only the [mysqladmin] group is used. If the file is processed by any other program, no options in /home/mydir/myopt.cnf are used.

The !includedir directive is processed similarly except that all option files in the named directory are read.

If an option file contains !include or !includedir directives, files named by those directives are processed whenever the option file is processed, no matter where they appear in the file.

5.2.7 Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling

Most MySQL programs that support option files handle the following options. Because these options affect option-file handling, they must be given on the command line and not in an option file. To work properly, each of these options must be given before other options, with these exceptions:

When specifying file names, avoid the use of the ~ shell metacharacter because it might not be interpreted as you expect.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file and (on all platforms) before the login path file. (For information about the order in which option files are used, see раздел 5.2.6.) If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exceptions: Even with --defaults-file, mysqld reads mysqld-auto.cnf and client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, the mysql client normally reads the [client] and [mysql] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_other] groups.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

    A client program reads the option group corresponding to the named login path, in addition to option groups that the program reads by default. Consider this command:

    shell> mysql --login-path=mypath
    
    By default, the mysql client reads the [client] and [mysql] option groups. So for the command shown, mysql reads [client] and [mysql] from other option files, and [client], [mysql], and [mypath] from the login path file.

    Client programs read the login path file even when the --no-defaults option is used.

    To specify an alternate login path file name, set the MYSQL_TEST_LOGIN_FILE environment variable.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that client programs read the .mylogin.cnf login path file, if it exists, even when --no-defaults is used. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even if --no-defaults is present. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files. Password values are masked.

5.2.8 Using Options to Set Program Variables

Many MySQL programs have internal variables that can be set at runtime using the SET statement. See раздел 14.7.4.1, and раздел 6.1.6.

Most of these program variables also can be set at server startup by using the same syntax that applies to specifying program options. For example, mysql has a max_allowed_packet variable that controls the maximum size of its communication buffer. To set the max_allowed_packet variable for mysql to a value of 16MB, use either of the following commands:

shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16777216
shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16M
The first command specifies the value in bytes. The second specifies the value in megabytes. For variables that take a numeric value, the value can be given with a suffix of K, M, or G (either uppercase or lowercase) to indicate a multiplier of 1024, 10242 or 10243. (For example, when used to set max_allowed_packet, the suffixes indicate units of kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes.)

In an option file, variable settings are given without the leading dashes:

[mysql]
max_allowed_packet=16777216
Or:
[mysql]
max_allowed_packet=16M
If you like, underscores in a variable name can be specified as dashes. The following option groups are equivalent. Both set the size of the server's key buffer to 512MB:
[mysqld]
key_buffer_size=512M

[mysqld]
key-buffer-size=512M
A variable can be specified by writing it in full or as any unambiguous prefix. For example, the max_allowed_packet variable can be set for mysql as --max_a, but not as --max because the latter is ambiguous:
shell> mysql --max=1000000
mysql: ambiguous option '--max=1000000' (max_allowed_packet, max_join_size)
Be aware that the use of variable prefixes can cause problems in the event that new variables are implemented for a program. A prefix that is unambiguous now might become ambiguous in the future.

Suffixes for specifying a value multiplier can be used when setting a variable at server startup, but not to set the value with SET at runtime. On the other hand, with SET, you can assign a variable's value using an expression, which is not true when you set a variable at server startup. For example, the first of the following lines is legal at server startup, but the second is not:

shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16M
shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16*1024*1024
Conversely, the second of the following lines is legal at runtime, but the first is not:
mysql> SET GLOBAL max_allowed_packet=16M;
mysql> SET GLOBAL max_allowed_packet=16*1024*1024;

5.2.9 Option Defaults, Options Expecting Values, and the = Sign

By convention, long forms of options that assign a value are written with an equals (=) sign, like this:

shell> mysql --host=tonfisk --user=jon
For options that require a value (that is, not having a default value), the equals sign is not required, and so the following is also valid:
shell> mysql --host tonfisk --user jon
In both cases, the mysql client attempts to connect to a MySQL server running on the host named tonfisk using an account with the user name jon.

Due to this behavior, problems can occasionally arise when no value is provided for an option that expects one. Consider the following example, where a user connects to a MySQL server running on host tonfisk as user jon:

shell> mysql --host 85.224.35.45 --user jon
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3
Server version: 8.0.1 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> SELECT CURRENT_USER();
+----------------+
| CURRENT_USER() |
+----------------+
| jon@%          |
+----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Omitting the required value for one of these option yields an error, such as the one shown here:
shell> mysql --host 85.224.35.45 --user
mysql: option '--user' requires an argument
In this case, mysql was unable to find a value following the --user option because nothing came after it on the command line. However, if you omit the value for an option that is not the last option to be used, you obtain a different error that you may not be expecting:
shell> mysql --host --user jon
ERROR 2005 (HY000): Unknown MySQL server host '--user' (1)
Because mysql assumes that any string following --host on the command line is a host name, --host --user is interpreted as --host=--user, and the client attempts to connect to a MySQL server running on a host named --user.

Options having default values always require an equals sign when assigning a value; failing to do so causes an error. For example, the MySQL server --log-error option has the default value host_name.err, where host_name is the name of the host on which MySQL is running. Assume that you are running MySQL on a computer whose host name is tonfisk, and consider the following invocation of mysqld_safe:

shell> mysqld_safe &
[1] 11699
shell> 080112 12:53:40 mysqld_safe Logging to '/usr/local/mysql/var/tonfisk.err'.
080112 12:53:40 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /usr/local/mysql/var
shell>
After shutting down the server, restart it as follows:
shell> mysqld_safe --log-error &
[1] 11699
shell> 080112 12:53:40 mysqld_safe Logging to '/usr/local/mysql/var/tonfisk.err'.
080112 12:53:40 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /usr/local/mysql/var
shell>
The result is the same, since --log-error is not followed by anything else on the command line, and it supplies its own default value. (The & character tells the operating system to run MySQL in the background; it is ignored by MySQL itself.) Now suppose that you wish to log errors to a file named my-errors.err. You might try starting the server with --log-error my-errors, but this does not have the intended effect, as shown here:
shell> mysqld_safe --log-error my-errors &
[1] 31357
shell> 080111 22:53:31 mysqld_safe Logging to '/usr/local/mysql/var/tonfisk.err'.
080111 22:53:32 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /usr/local/mysql/var
080111 22:53:34 mysqld_safe mysqld from pid file /usr/local/mysql/var/tonfisk.pid ended

[1]+  Done./mysqld_safe --log-error my-errors
The server attempted to start using /usr/local/mysql/var/tonfisk.err as the error log, but then shut down. Examining the last few lines of this file shows the reason:
shell> tail /usr/local/mysql/var/tonfisk.err
2013-09-24T15:36:22.278034Z 0 [ERROR] Too many arguments (first extra is 'my-errors').
2013-09-24T15:36:22.278059Z 0 [Note] Use --verbose --help to get a list of available options!
2013-09-24T15:36:22.278076Z 0 [ERROR] Aborting
2013-09-24T15:36:22.279704Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
2013-09-24T15:36:23.777471Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 2319086
2013-09-24T15:36:23.780134Z 0 [Note] mysqld: Shutdown complete
Because the --log-error option supplies a default value, you must use an equals sign to assign a different value to it, as shown here:
shell> mysqld_safe --log-error=my-errors &
[1] 31437
shell> 080111 22:54:15 mysqld_safe Logging to '/usr/local/mysql/var/my-errors.err'.
080111 22:54:15 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /usr/local/mysql/var

shell>
Now the server has been started successfully, and is logging errors to the file /usr/local/mysql/var/my-errors.err.

Similar issues can arise when specifying option values in option files. For example, consider a my.cnf file that contains the following:

[mysql]

host
user
When the mysql client reads this file, these entries are parsed as --host --user or --host=--user, with the result shown here:
shell> mysql
ERROR 2005 (HY000): Unknown MySQL server host '--user' (1)
However, in option files, an equals sign is not assumed. Suppose the my.cnf file is as shown here:
[mysql]

user jon
Trying to start mysql in this case causes a different error:
shell> mysql
mysql: unknown option '--user jon'
A similar error would occur if you were to write host tonfisk in the option file rather than host=tonfisk. Instead, you must use the equals sign:
[mysql]

user=jon
Now the login attempt succeeds:
shell> mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5
Server version: 8.0.1 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> SELECT USER();
+---------------+
| USER()        |
+---------------+
| jon@localhost |
+---------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
This is not the same behavior as with the command line, where the equals sign is not required:
shell> mysql --user jon --host tonfisk
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 6
Server version: 8.0.1 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> SELECT USER();
+---------------+
| USER()        |
+---------------+
| jon@tonfisk   |
+---------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Specifying an option requiring a value without a value in an option file causes the server to abort with an error. Suppose that my.cnf contains the following:
[mysqld]
log_error
relay_log
relay_log_index
This causes the server to fail on startup, as shown here:
shell> mysqld_safe &

130924 10:41:46 mysqld_safe Logging to '/home/jon/bin/mysql/var/tonfisk.err'.
130924 10:41:46 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /home/jon/bin/mysql/var
130924 10:41:47 mysqld_safe mysqld from pid file /home/jon/bin/mysql/var/tonfisk.pid ended
The --log-error option does not require an argument; however, the --relay-log option requires one, as shown in the error log (which in the absence of a specified value, defaults to datadir/hostname.err):
shell> tail -n 3 ../var/tonfisk.err

130924 10:41:46 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /home/jon/bin/mysql/var
2013-09-24T15:41:47.217180Z 0 [ERROR] /home/jon/bin/mysql/libexec/mysqld: option '--relay-log' requires an argument
2013-09-24T15:41:47.217479Z 0 [ERROR] Aborting
This is a change from previous behavior, where the server would have interpreted the last two lines in the example my.cnf file as --relay-log=relay_log_index and created a relay log file using relay_log_index as the base name. (Bug #25192)

5.2.10 Setting Environment Variables

Environment variables can be set at the command prompt to affect the current invocation of your command processor, or set permanently to affect future invocations. To set a variable permanently, you can set it in a startup file or by using the interface provided by your system for this purpose. Consult the documentation for your command interpreter for specific details. раздел 5.9, lists all environment variables that affect MySQL program operation.

To specify a value for an environment variable, use the syntax appropriate for your command processor. For example, on Windows, you can set the USER variable to specify your MySQL account name. To do so, use this syntax:

SET USER=your_name
The syntax on Unix depends on your shell. Suppose that you want to specify the TCP/IP port number using the MYSQL_TCP_PORT variable. Typical syntax (such as for sh, ksh, bash, zsh, and so on) is as follows:
MYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306
export MYSQL_TCP_PORT
The first command sets the variable, and the export command exports the variable to the shell environment so that its value becomes accessible to MySQL and other processes.

For csh and tcsh, use setenv to make the shell variable available to the environment:

setenv MYSQL_TCP_PORT 3306
The commands to set environment variables can be executed at your command prompt to take effect immediately, but the settings persist only until you log out. To have the settings take effect each time you log in, use the interface provided by your system or place the appropriate command or commands in a startup file that your command interpreter reads each time it starts.

On Windows, you can set environment variables using the System Control Panel (under Advanced).

On Unix, typical shell startup files are .bashrc or .bash_profile for bash, or .tcshrc for tcsh.

Suppose that your MySQL programs are installed in /usr/local/mysql/bin and that you want to make it easy to invoke these programs. To do this, set the value of the PATH environment variable to include that directory. For example, if your shell is bash, add the following line to your .bashrc file:

PATH=${PATH}:/usr/local/mysql/bin
bash uses different startup files for login and nonlogin shells, so you might want to add the setting to .bashrc for login shells and to .bash_profile for nonlogin shells to make sure that PATH is set regardless.

If your shell is tcsh, add the following line to your .tcshrc file:

setenv PATH ${PATH}:/usr/local/mysql/bin
If the appropriate startup file does not exist in your home directory, create it with a text editor.

After modifying your PATH setting, open a new console window on Windows or log in again on Unix so that the setting goes into effect.

5.3 MySQL Server and Server-Startup Programs

This раздел describes mysqld, the MySQL server, and several programs that are used to start the server.

5.3.1 mysqld Б─■ The MySQL Server

mysqld, also known as MySQL Server, is the main program that does most of the work in a MySQL installation. MySQL Server manages access to the MySQL data directory that contains databases and tables. The data directory is also the default location for other information such as log files and status files.

When MySQL server starts, it listens for network connections from client programs and manages access to databases on behalf of those clients.

The mysqld program has many options that can be specified at startup. For a complete list of options, run this command:

shell> mysqld --verbose --help
MySQL Server also has a set of system variables that affect its operation as it runs. System variables can be set at server startup, and many of them can be changed at runtime to effect dynamic server reconfiguration. MySQL Server also has a set of status variables that provide information about its operation. You can monitor these status variables to access runtime performance characteristics.

For a full description of MySQL Server command options, system variables, and status variables, see раздел 6.1, The MySQL Server. For information about installing MySQL and setting up the initial configuration, see Chapter 2, Installing and Upgrading MySQL.

5.3.2 mysqld_safe Б─■ MySQL Server Startup Script

mysqld_safe is the recommended way to start a mysqld server on Unix. mysqld_safe adds some safety features such as restarting the server when an error occurs and logging runtime information to an error log file. A description of error logging is given later in this раздел.

For MySQL installation using an RPM distribution, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd on several Linux platforms. On these platforms, mysqld_safe is no longer installed because it is unnecessary. For more information, see раздел 2.5.9.

mysqld_safe tries to start an executable named mysqld. To override the default behavior and specify explicitly the name of the server you want to run, specify a --mysqld or --mysqld-version option to mysqld_safe. You can also use --ledir to indicate the directory where mysqld_safe should look for the server.

Many of the options to mysqld_safe are the same as the options to mysqld. See раздел 6.1.4.

Options unknown to mysqld_safe are passed to mysqld if they are specified on the command line, but ignored if they are specified in the [mysqld_safe] group of an option file. See раздел 5.2.6.

mysqld_safe reads all options from the [mysqld], [server], and [mysqld_safe] разделs in option files. For example, if you specify a [mysqld] раздел like this, mysqld_safe will find and use the --log-error option:

[mysqld]
log-error=error.log
For backward compatibility, mysqld_safe also reads [safe_mysqld] разделs, but to be current you should rename such разделs to [mysqld_safe].

mysqld_safe accepts options on the command line and in option files, as described in the following table. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.3 mysqld_safe Options

FormatDescription
--basedirPath to MySQL installation directory
--core-file-sizeSize of core file that mysqld should be able to create
--datadirPath to data directory
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--helpDisplay help message and exit
--ledirPath to directory where server is located
--log-errorWrite error log to named file
--malloc-libAlternative malloc library to use for mysqld
--mysqldName of server program to start (in ledir directory)
--mysqld-safe-log-timestampsTimestamp format for logging
--mysqld-versionSuffix for server program name
--niceUse nice program to set server scheduling priority
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--open-files-limitNumber of files that mysqld should be able to open
--pid-filePath name of process ID file
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port Port number on which to listen for TCP/IP connections
--skip-kill-mysqldDo not try to kill stray mysqld processes
--skip-syslogDo not write error messages to syslog; use error log file
--socket Socket file on which to listen for Unix socket connections
--syslog Write error messages to syslog
--syslog-tagTag suffix for messages written to syslog
--timezoneSet TZ time zone environment variable to named value
--user Run mysqld as user having name user_name or numeric user ID user_id
  • --help

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --basedir= dir_name

    The path to the MySQL installation directory.

  • --core-file-size=size

    The size of the core file that mysqld should be able to create. The option value is passed to ulimit -c.

  • --datadir=dir_name

    The path to the data directory.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    The name of an option file to be read in addition to the usual option files. This must be the first option on the command line if it is used. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, the server will exit with an error.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    The name of an option file to be read instead of the usual option files. This must be the first option on the command line if it is used.

  • --ledir=dir_name

    If mysqld_safe cannot find the server, use this option to indicate the path name to the directory where the server is located.

  • --log-error=file_name

    Write the error log to the given file. See раздел 6.4.2, The Error Log.

  • --mysqld-safe-log-timestamps

    This option controls the format for timestamps in log output produced by mysqld_safe. The following list describes the permitted values. For any other value, mysqld_safe logs a warning and uses UTC format.

    • UTC, utc

      ISO 8601 UTC format (same as --log_timestamps=UTC for the server). This is the default.

    • SYSTEM, system

      ISO 8601 local time format (same as --log_timestamps=SYSTEM for the server).

    • HYPHEN, hyphen

      YY-MM-DD h:mm:ss format, as in mysqld_safe for MySQL 5.6.

    • LEGACY, legacy

      YYMMDD hh:mm:ss format, as in mysqld_safe prior to MySQL 5.6.

  • --malloc-lib=[lib_name]

    The name of the library to use for memory allocation instead of the system malloc() library. The option value must be one of the directories /usr/lib, /usr/lib64, /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu, or /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu.

    The --malloc-lib option works by modifying the LD_PRELOAD environment value to affect dynamic linking to enable the loader to find the memory-allocation library when mysqld runs:

    • If the option is not given, or is given without a value (--malloc-lib=), LD_PRELOAD is not modified and no attempt is made to use tcmalloc.

    • If the option is given as --malloc-lib=tcmalloc, mysqld_safe looks for a tcmalloc library in /usr/lib. If tmalloc is found, its path name is added to the beginning of the LD_PRELOAD value for mysqld. If tcmalloc is not found, mysqld_safe aborts with an error.
    • If the option is given as --malloc-lib=/path/to/some/library, that full path is added to the beginning of the LD_PRELOAD value. If the full path points to a nonexistent or unreadable file, mysqld_safe aborts with an error.
    • For cases where mysqld_safe adds a path name to LD_PRELOAD, it adds the path to the beginning of any existing value the variable already has.

    On systems that manage the server using systemd, mysqld_safe is not available. Instead, specify the allocation library by setting LD_PRELOAD in /etc/sysconfig/mysql.

    Linux users can use the libtcmalloc_minimal.so library on any platform for which a tcmalloc package is installed in /usr/lib by adding these lines to the my.cnf file:

    [mysqld_safe]
    malloc-lib=tcmalloc
    
    To use a specific tcmalloc library, specify its full path name. Example:
    [mysqld_safe]
    malloc-lib=/opt/lib/libtcmalloc_minimal.so
    
  • --mysqld=prog_name

    The name of the server program (in the ledir directory) that you want to start. This option is needed if you use the MySQL binary distribution but have the data directory outside of the binary distribution. If mysqld_safe cannot find the server, use the --ledir option to indicate the path name to the directory where the server is located.

    This option can be given only on the command line and not in an option file.

  • --mysqld-version=suffix

    This option is similar to the --mysqld option, but you specify only the suffix for the server program name. The base name is assumed to be mysqld. For example, if you use --mysqld-version=debug, mysqld_safe starts the mysqld-debug program in the ledir directory. If the argument to --mysqld-version is empty, mysqld_safe uses mysqld in the ledir directory.

    This option can be given only on the command line and not in an option file.

  • --nice=priority

    Use the nice program to set the server's scheduling priority to the given value.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. This must be the first option on the command line if it is used.

  • --open-files-limit=count

    The number of files that mysqld should be able to open. The option value is passed to ulimit -n.

    You must start mysqld_safe as root for this to function properly.

  • --pid-file=file_name

    The path name of the process ID file.

    mysqld_safe creates a PID file named mysqld_safe.pid in the MySQL data directory when starting up.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The path name of the plugin directory.

  • --port=port_num

    The port number that the server should use when listening for TCP/IP connections. The port number must be 1024 or higher unless the server is started by the root system user.

  • --skip-kill-mysqld

    Do not try to kill stray mysqld processes at startup. This option works only on Linux.

  • --socket= path

    The Unix socket file that the server should use when listening for local connections.

  • --syslog, --skip-syslog

    --syslog causes error messages to be sent to syslog on systems that support the logger program. --skip-syslog suppresses the use of syslog; messages are written to an error log file.

    When syslog is used, the daemon.err facility/severity is used for all log messages.

    Using these options to control mysqld logging is deprecated. Use the server log_syslog system variable instead. To control the facility, use the server log_syslog_facility system variable. See раздел 6.4.2, The Error Log.

  • --syslog-tag=tag

    For logging to syslog, messages from mysqld_safe and mysqld are written with identifiers of mysqld_safe and mysqld, respectively. To specify a suffix for the identifiers, use --syslog-tag=tag, which modifies the identifiers to be mysqld_safe-tag and mysqld-tag.

    Using this option to control mysqld logging is deprecated. Use the server log_syslog_tag system variable instead. See раздел 6.4.2, The Error Log.

  • --timezone=timezone

    Set the TZ time zone environment variable to the given option value. Consult your operating system documentation for legal time zone specification formats.

  • --user={user_name|user_id}

    Run the mysqld server as the user having the name user_name or the numeric user ID user_id. (User in this context refers to a system login account, not a MySQL user listed in the grant tables.)

If you execute mysqld_safe with the --defaults-file or --defaults-extra-file option to name an option file, the option must be the first one given on the command line or the option file will not be used. For example, this command will not use the named option file:

mysql> mysqld_safe --port=port_num --defaults-file=file_name
Instead, use the following command:
mysql> mysqld_safe --defaults-file=file_name --port=port_num
The mysqld_safe script is written so that it normally can start a server that was installed from either a source or a binary distribution of MySQL, even though these types of distributions typically install the server in slightly different locations. (See раздел 2.1.4.) mysqld_safe expects one of the following conditions to be true:

  • The server and databases can be found relative to the working directory (the directory from which mysqld_safe is invoked). For binary distributions, mysqld_safe looks under its working directory for bin and data directories. For source distributions, it looks for libexec and var directories. This condition should be met if you execute mysqld_safe from your MySQL installation directory (for example, /usr/local/mysql for a binary distribution).

  • If the server and databases cannot be found relative to the working directory, mysqld_safe attempts to locate them by absolute path names. Typical locations are /usr/local/libexec and /usr/local/var. The actual locations are determined from the values configured into the distribution at the time it was built. They should be correct if MySQL is installed in the location specified at configuration time.

Because mysqld_safe tries to find the server and databases relative to its own working directory, you can install a binary distribution of MySQL anywhere, as long as you run mysqld_safe from the MySQL installation directory:

shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> bin/mysqld_safe &
If mysqld_safe fails, even when invoked from the MySQL installation directory, specify the --ledir and --datadir options to indicate the directories in which the server and databases are located on your system.

mysqld_safe tries to use the sleep and date system utilities to determine how many times per second it has attempted to start. If these utilities are present and the attempted starts per second is greater than 5, mysqld_safe waits 1 full second before starting again. This is intended to prevent excessive CPU usage in the event of repeated failures. (Bug #11761530, Bug #54035)

When you use mysqld_safe to start mysqld, mysqld_safe arranges for error (and notice) messages from itself and from mysqld to go to the same destination.

There are several mysqld_safe options for controlling the destination of these messages:

  • --log-error=file_name: Write error messages to the named error file.

  • --syslog: Write error messages to syslog on systems that support the logger program.
  • --skip-syslog: Do not write error messages to syslog. Messages are written to the default error log file (host_name.err in the data directory), or to a named file if the --log-error option is given.

If none of these options is given, the default is --skip-syslog.

When mysqld_safe writes a message, notices go to the logging destination (syslog or the error log file) and stdout. Errors go to the logging destination and stderr.

Controlling mysqld logging from mysqld_safe is deprecated. Use the server's native syslog support instead. For more information, see раздел 6.4.2, The Error Log.

5.3.3 mysql.server Б─■ MySQL Server Startup Script

MySQL distributions on Unix include a script named mysql.server, which starts the server using mysqld_safe. It can be used on systems such as Linux and Solaris that use System V-style run directories to start and stop system services. It is also used by the OS X Startup Item for MySQL.

For MySQL installation using an RPM distribution, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd on several Linux platforms. On these platforms, mysql.server and mysqld_safe are no longer installed because they are unnecessary. For more information, see раздел 2.5.9.

To start or stop the server manually using the mysql.server script, invoke it with start or stop arguments:

shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop
Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes location to the MySQL installation directory, and then invokes mysqld_safe. To run the server as some specific user, add an appropriate user option to the [mysqld] group of the /etc/my.cnf option file, as shown later in this раздел. (It is possible that you must edit mysql.server if you've installed a binary distribution of MySQL in a nonstandard location. Modify it to change location into the proper directory before it runs mysqld_safe. If you do this, your modified version of mysql.server may be overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.)

mysql.server stop stops the server by sending a signal to it. You can also stop the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.

To start and stop MySQL automatically on your server, you must add start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your /etc/rc* files.

If you use the Linux server RPM package (MySQL-server-VERSION.rpm), or a native Linux package installation, the mysql.server script may be installed in the /etc/init.d directory with the name mysql. See раздел 2.5.4, for more information on the Linux RPM packages.

Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name such as mysqld.

If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a binary distribution format that does not install mysql.server automatically, you can install it manually. The script can be found in the support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. Copy it to the /etc/init.d directory with the name mysql, and then make it executable:

shell> cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
shell> chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql

Older Red Hat systems use the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory rather than /etc/init.d. Adjust the preceding commands accordingly. Alternatively, first create /etc/init.d as a symbolic link that points to /etc/rc.d/init.d:

shell> cd /etc
shell> ln -s rc.d/init.d .
After installing the script, the commands needed to activate it to run at system startup depend on your operating system. On Linux, you can use chkconfig:
shell> chkconfig --add mysql
On some Linux systems, the following command also seems to be necessary to fully enable the mysql script:
shell> chkconfig --level 345 mysql on
On FreeBSD, startup scripts generally should go in /usr/local/etc/rc.d/. The rc(8) manual page states that scripts in this directory are executed only if their base name matches the *.sh shell file name pattern. Any other files or directories present within the directory are silently ignored. In other words, on FreeBSD, you should install the mysql.server script as /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql.server.sh to enable automatic startup.

As an alternative to the preceding setup, some operating systems also use /etc/rc.local or /etc/init.d/boot.local to start additional services on startup. To start up MySQL using this method, append a command like the one following to the appropriate startup file:

/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql; ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &'
For other systems, consult your operating system documentation to see how to install startup scripts.

mysql.server reads options from the [mysql.server] and [mysqld] разделs of option files. For backward compatibility, it also reads [mysql_server] разделs, but to be current you should rename such разделs to [mysql.server].

You can add options for mysql.server in a global /etc/my.cnf file. A typical /etc/my.cnf file might look like this:

[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock
port=3306
user=mysql

[mysql.server]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql
The mysql.server script supports the following options. If specified, they must be placed in an option file, not on the command line. mysql.server supports only start and stop as command-line arguments.

Table 5.4 mysql.server Options

FormatDescription
--basedir Path to MySQL installation directory
--datadirPath to MySQL data directory
--pid-file File in which server should write its process ID
--service-startup-timeout How long to wait for server startup
  • --basedir=dir_name

    The path to the MySQL installation directory.

  • --datadir=dir_name

    The path to the MySQL data directory.

  • --pid-file=file_name

    The path name of the file in which the server should write its process ID.

    If this option is not given, mysql.server uses a default value of host_name.pid. The PID file value passed to mysqld_safe overrides any value specified in the [mysqld_safe] option file group. Because mysql.server reads the [mysqld] option file group but not the [mysqld_safe] group, you can ensure that mysqld_safe gets the same value when invoke using mysql.server as when invoked manually by putting the same pid-file setting in both the [mysqld_safe] and [mysqld] groups.

  • --service-startup-timeout=seconds

    How long in seconds to wait for confirmation of server startup. If the server does not start within this time, mysql.server exits with an error. The default value is 900. A value of 0 means not to wait at all for startup. Negative values mean to wait forever (no timeout).

5.3.4 mysqld_multi Б─■ Manage Multiple MySQL Servers

mysqld_multi is designed to manage several mysqld processes that listen for connections on different Unix socket files and TCP/IP ports. It can start or stop servers, or report their current status.

For MySQL installation using an RPM distribution, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd on several Linux platforms. On these platforms, mysqld_multi is no longer installed because it is unnecessary. For information about using systemd to handle multiple MySQL instances, see раздел 2.5.9.

mysqld_multi searches for groups named [mysqldN] in my.cnf (or in the file named by the --defaults-file option). N can be any positive integer. This number is referred to in the following discussion as the option group number, or GNR. Group numbers distinguish option groups from one another and are used as arguments to mysqld_multi to specify which servers you want to start, stop, or obtain a status report for. Options listed in these groups are the same that you would use in the [mysqld] group used for starting mysqld. (See, for example, раздел 2.9.5, Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.) However, when using multiple servers, it is necessary that each one use its own value for options such as the Unix socket file and TCP/IP port number. For more information on which options must be unique per server in a multiple-server environment, see раздел 6.7, Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine.

To invoke mysqld_multi, use the following syntax:

shell> mysqld_multi [options] {start|stop|reload|report} [GNR[,GNR] ...]
start, stop, reload (stop and restart), and report indicate which operation to perform. You can perform the designated operation for a single server or multiple servers, depending on the GNR list that follows the option name. If there is no list, mysqld_multi performs the operation for all servers in the option file.

Each GNR value represents an option group number or range of group numbers. The value should be the number at the end of the group name in the option file. For example, the GNR for a group named [mysqld17] is 17. To specify a range of numbers, separate the first and last numbers by a dash. The GNR value 10-13 represents groups [mysqld10] through [mysqld13]. Multiple groups or group ranges can be specified on the command line, separated by commas. There must be no whitespace characters (spaces or tabs) in the GNR list; anything after a whitespace character is ignored.

This command starts a single server using option group [mysqld17]:

shell> mysqld_multi start 17
This command stops several servers, using option groups [mysqld8] and [mysqld10] through [mysqld13]:
shell> mysqld_multi stop 8,10-13
For an example of how you might set up an option file, use this command:
shell> mysqld_multi --example
mysqld_multi searches for option files as follows:

Option files read are searched for [mysqld_multi] and [mysqldN] option groups. The [mysqld_multi] group can be used for options to mysqld_multi itself. [mysqldN] groups can be used for options passed to specific mysqld instances.

The [mysqld] or [mysqld_safe] groups can be used for common options read by all instances of mysqld or mysqld_safe. You can specify a --defaults-file=file_name option to use a different configuration file for that instance, in which case the [mysqld] or [mysqld_safe] groups from that file will be used for that instance.

mysqld_multi supports the following options.

  • --help

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --example

    Display a sample option file.

  • --log=file_name

    Specify the name of the log file. If the file exists, log output is appended to it.

  • --mysqladmin=prog_name

    The mysqladmin binary to be used to stop servers.

  • --mysqld=prog_name

    The mysqld binary to be used. Note that you can specify mysqld_safe as the value for this option also. If you use mysqld_safe to start the server, you can include the mysqld or ledir options in the corresponding [mysqldN] option group. These options indicate the name of the server that mysqld_safe should start and the path name of the directory where the server is located. (See the descriptions for these options in раздел 5.3.2.) Example:

    [mysqld38]
    mysqld = mysqld-debug
    ledir  = /opt/local/mysql/libexec
    
  • --no-log

    Print log information to stdout rather than to the log file. By default, output goes to the log file.

  • --password=password

    The password of the MySQL account to use when invoking mysqladmin. Note that the password value is not optional for this option, unlike for other MySQL programs.

  • --silent

    Silent mode; disable warnings.

  • --tcp-ip

    Connect to each MySQL server through the TCP/IP port instead of the Unix socket file. (If a socket file is missing, the server might still be running, but accessible only through the TCP/IP port.) By default, connections are made using the Unix socket file. This option affects stop and report operations.

  • --user=user_name

    The user name of the MySQL account to use when invoking mysqladmin.

  • --verbose

    Be more verbose.

  • --version

    Display version information and exit.

Some notes about mysqld_multi:

  • Most important: Before using mysqld_multi be sure that you understand the meanings of the options that are passed to the mysqld servers and why you would want to have separate mysqld processes. Beware of the dangers of using multiple mysqld servers with the same data directory. Use separate data directories, unless you know what you are doing. Starting multiple servers with the same data directory does not give you extra performance in a threaded system. See раздел 6.7, Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine.

  • Make sure that the data directory for each server is fully accessible to the Unix account that the specific mysqld process is started as. Do not use the Unix root account for this, unless you know what you are doing. See раздел 7.1.5, How to Run MySQL as a Normal User.

  • Make sure that the MySQL account used for stopping the mysqld servers (with the mysqladmin program) has the same user name and password for each server. Also, make sure that the account has the SHUTDOWN privilege. If the servers that you want to manage have different user names or passwords for the administrative accounts, you might want to create an account on each server that has the same user name and password. For example, you might set up a common multi_admin account by executing the following commands for each server:

    shell> mysql -u root -S /tmp/mysql.sock -p
    Enter password:
    mysql> CREATE USER 'multi_admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'multipass';
    mysql> GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'multi_admin'@'localhost';
    
    See раздел 7.2. You have to do this for each mysqld server. Change the connection parameters appropriately when connecting to each one. Note that the host name part of the account name must permit you to connect as multi_admin from the host where you want to run mysqld_multi.
  • The Unix socket file and the TCP/IP port number must be different for every mysqld. (Alternatively, if the host has multiple network addresses, you can use --bind-address to cause different servers to listen to different interfaces.)
  • The --pid-file option is very important if you are using mysqld_safe to start mysqld (for example, --mysqld=mysqld_safe) Every mysqld should have its own process ID file. The advantage of using mysqld_safe instead of mysqld is that mysqld_safe monitors its mysqld process and restarts it if the process terminates due to a signal sent using kill -9 or for other reasons, such as a segmentation fault. Please note that the mysqld_safe script might require that you start it from a certain place. This means that you might have to change location to a certain directory before running mysqld_multi. If you have problems starting, please see the mysqld_safe script. Check especially the lines:
    ----------------------------------------------------------------
    MY_PWD=`pwd`
    # Check if we are starting this relative (for the binary release)
    if test -d $MY_PWD/data/mysql -a \
       -f ./share/mysql/english/errmsg.sys -a \
       -x ./bin/mysqld
    ----------------------------------------------------------------
    
    The test performed by these lines should be successful, or you might encounter problems. See раздел 5.3.2.
  • You might want to use the --user option for mysqld, but to do this you need to run the mysqld_multi script as the Unix superuser (root). Having the option in the option file doesn't matter; you just get a warning if you are not the superuser and the mysqld processes are started under your own Unix account.

The following example shows how you might set up an option file for use with mysqld_multi. The order in which the mysqld programs are started or stopped depends on the order in which they appear in the option file. Group numbers need not form an unbroken sequence. The first and fifth [mysqldN] groups were intentionally omitted from the example to illustrate that you can have gaps in the option file. This gives you more flexibility.

# This is an example of a my.cnf file for mysqld_multi.
# Usually this file is located in home dir ~/.my.cnf or /etc/my.cnf

[mysqld_multi]
mysqld = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe
mysqladmin = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
user = multi_admin
password   = my_password

[mysqld2]
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock2
port = 3307
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/data2/hostname.pid2
datadir= /usr/local/mysql/data2
language   = /usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/english
user = unix_user1

[mysqld3]
mysqld = /path/to/mysqld_safe
ledir= /path/to/mysqld-binary/
mysqladmin = /path/to/mysqladmin
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock3
port = 3308
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/data3/hostname.pid3
datadir= /usr/local/mysql/data3
language   = /usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/swedish
user = unix_user2

[mysqld4]
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock4
port = 3309
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/data4/hostname.pid4
datadir= /usr/local/mysql/data4
language   = /usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/estonia
user = unix_user3

[mysqld6]
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock6
port = 3311
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/data6/hostname.pid6
datadir= /usr/local/mysql/data6
language   = /usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/japanese
user = unix_user4
See раздел 5.2.6.

5.4 MySQL Installation-Related Programs

The programs in this раздел are used when installing or upgrading MySQL.

5.4.1 comp_err Б─■ Compile MySQL Error Message File

comp_err creates the errmsg.sys file that is used by mysqld to determine the error messages to display for different error codes. comp_err normally is run automatically when MySQL is built. It compiles the errmsg.sys file from the text file located at sql/share/errmsg-utf8.txt in MySQL source distributions.

comp_err also generates mysqld_error.h, mysqld_ername.h, and sql_state.h header files.

For more information about how error messages are defined, see the MySQL Internals Manual.

Invoke comp_err like this:

shell> comp_err [options]
comp_err supports the following options.

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --charset=dir_name, -C dir_name

    The character set directory. The default is ../sql/share/charsets.

  • --debug=debug_options, -# debug_options

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:O,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/comp_err.trace.

  • --debug-info , -T

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --header_file=file_name, -H file_name

    The name of the error header file. The default is mysqld_error.h.

  • --in_file=file_name, -F file_name

    The name of the input file. The default is ../sql/share/errmsg-utf8.txt.

  • --name_file=file_name, -N file_name

    The name of the error name file. The default is mysqld_ername.h.

  • --out_dir=dir_name, -D dir_name

    The name of the output base directory. The default is ../sql/share/.

  • --out_file=file_name, -O file_name

    The name of the output file. The default is errmsg.sys.

  • --statefile= file_name, -S file_name

    The name for the SQLSTATE header file. The default is sql_state.h.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.4.2 mysql_secure_installation Б─■ Improve MySQL Installation Security

This program enables you to improve the security of your MySQL installation in the following ways:

  • You can set a password for root accounts.

  • You can remove root accounts that are accessible from outside the local host.
  • You can remove anonymous-user accounts.
  • You can remove the test database (which by default can be accessed by all users, even anonymous users), and privileges that permit anyone to access databases with names that start with test_.

mysql_secure_installation helps you implement security recommendations similar to those described at раздел 2.9.4, Securing the Initial MySQL Account.

Normal usage is to connect to the local MySQL server; invoke mysql_secure_installation without arguments:

shell> mysql_secure_installation
When executed, mysql_secure_installation prompts you to determine which actions to perform.

The validate_password plugin can be used for password strength checking. If the plugin is not installed, mysql_secure_installation prompts the user whether to install it. Any passwords entered later are checked using the plugin if it is enabled.

Most of the usual MySQL client options such as --host and --port can be used on the command line and in option files. For example, to connect to the local server over IPv6 using port 3307, use this command:

shell> mysql_secure_installation --host=::1 --port=3307
mysql_secure_installation supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_secure_installation] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.5. mysql_secure_installation Options

FormatDescription
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--help Display help message and exit
--host Host to connect to (IP address or host name)
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--password Accepted but always ignored. Whenever mysql_secure_installation is invoked, the user is prompted for a password, regardless.
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocol Connection protocol to use
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capath Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-cert Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crl Path of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpath Path of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-key Path of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--use-defaultExecute with no user interactivity
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
  • --help , -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_secure_installation normally reads the [client] and [mysql_secure_installation] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql_secure_installation also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_secure_installation_other] groups.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --password=password, -p password

    This option is accepted but ignored. Whether or not this option is used, mysql_secure_installation always prompts the user for a password.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --use-default

    Execute noninteractively. This option can be used for unattended installation operations.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

5.4.3 mysql_ssl_rsa_setup Б─■ Create SSL/RSA Files

This program creates the SSL certificate and key files and RSA key-pair files required to support secure connections using SSL and secure password exchange using RSA over unencrypted connections, if those files are missing. mysql_ssl_rsa_setup can also be used to create new SSL files if the existing ones have expired.

mysql_ssl_rsa_setup uses the openssl command, so its use is contingent on having OpenSSL installed on your machine.

Another way to generate SSL and RSA files, for MySQL distributions compiled using OpenSSL, is to have the server generated them automatically. See раздел 7.4.6.1.

mysql_ssl_rsa_setup helps lower the barrier to using SSL by making it easier to generate the required files. However, certificates generated by mysql_ssl_rsa_setup are self-signed, which is not very secure. After you gain experience using the files created by mysql_ssl_rsa_setup, consider obtaining a CA certificate from a registered certificate authority.

Invoke mysql_ssl_rsa_setup like this:

shell> mysql_ssl_rsa_setup [options]
Typical options are --datadir to specify where to create the files, and --verbose to see the openssl commands that mysql_ssl_rsa_setup executes.

mysql_ssl_rsa_setup attempts to create SSL and RSA files using a default set of file names. It works as follows:

  1. mysql_ssl_rsa_setup checks for the openssl binary at the locations specified by the PATH environment variable. If openssl is not found, mysql_ssl_rsa_setup does nothing. If openssl is present, mysql_ssl_rsa_setup looks for default SSL and RSA files in the MySQL data directory specified by the --datadir option, or the compiled-in data directory if that option is not given.

  2. mysql_ssl_rsa_setup checks the data directory for SSL files with the following names:
    ca.pem
    server-cert.pem
    server-key.pem
    
  3. If any of those files are present, mysql_ssl_rsa_setup creates no SSL files. Otherwise, it invokes openssl to create them, plus some additional files:
    ca.pem   Self-signed CA certificate
    ca-key.pem   CA private key
    server-cert.pemServer certificate
    server-key.pem Server private key
    client-cert.pemClient certificate
    client-key.pem Client private key
    
    These files enable secure client connections using SSL; see раздел 7.4.4, Configuring MySQL to Use Secure Connections.
  4. mysql_ssl_rsa_setup checks the data directory for RSA files with the following names:
    private_key.pemPrivate member of private/public key pair
    public_key.pem Public member of private/public key pair
    
  5. If any of these files are present, mysql_ssl_rsa_setup creates no RSA files. Otherwise, it invokes openssl to create them. These files enable secure password exchange using RSA over unencrypted connections for accounts authenticated by the sha256_password plugin; see раздел 7.5.1.2.

For information about the characteristics of files created by mysql_ssl_rsa_setup, see раздел 7.4.6.1.

At startup, the MySQL server automatically uses the SSL files created by mysql_ssl_rsa_setup to enable SSL if no explicit SSL options are given other than --ssl. If you prefer to designate the files explicitly, use the --ssl-ca, --ssl-cert, and --ssl-key options at startup to name the ca.pem, server-cert.pem, and server-key.pem files, respectively.

The server also automatically uses the RSA files created by mysql_ssl_rsa_setup to enable RSA if no explicit RSA options are given.

If the server is SSL-enabled, clients use SSL by default for the connection. To specify certificate and key files explicitly, use the --ssl-ca, --ssl-cert, and --ssl-key options to name the ca.pem, client-cert.pem, and client-key.pem files, respectively. However, some additional client setup may be required first because mysql_ssl_rsa_setup by default creates those files in the data directory. The permissions for the data directory normally enable access only to the system account that runs the MySQL server, so client programs cannot use files located there. To make the files available, copy them to a directory that is readable (but not writable) by clients:

  • For local clients, the MySQL installation directory can be used. For example, if the data directory is a subdirectory of the installation directory and your current location is the data directory, you can copy the files like this:

    shell> cp ca.pem client-cert.pem client-key.pem ..
    
  • For remote clients, distribute the files using a secure channel to ensure they are not tampered with during transit.

If the SSL files used for a MySQL installation have expired, you can use mysql_ssl_rsa_setup to create new ones:

  1. Stop the server.

  2. Rename or remove the existing SSL files. You may wish to make a backup of them first. (The RSA files do not expire, so you need not remove them. mysql_ssl_rsa_setup will see that they exist and not overwrite them.)
  3. Run mysql_ssl_rsa_setup with the --datadir option to specify where to create the new files.
  4. Restart the server.

mysql_ssl_rsa_setup supports the following command-line options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_ssl_rsa_setup] and [mysqld] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.6. mysql_ssl_rsa_setup Options

FormatDescription
--datadir Path to data directory
--helpDisplay help message and exit
--suffixSuffix for X509 certificate Common Name attribute
--uidName of effective user to use for file permissions
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
  • --help , ?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --datadir=dir_name

    The path to the directory that mysql_ssl_rsa_setup should check for default SSL and RSA files and in which it should create files if they are missing. The default is the compiled-in data directory.

  • --suffix=str

    The suffix for the Common Name attribute in X509 certificates. The suffix value is limited to 17 characters. The default is based on the MySQL version number.

  • --uid=name, -v

    The name of the user who should be the owner of any created files. The value is a user name, not a numeric user ID. In the absence of this option, files created by mysql_ssl_rsa_setup are owned by the user who executes it. This option is valid only if you execute the program as root on a system that supports the chown() system call.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. For example, the program shows the openssl commands it runs, and produces output to indicate whether it skips SSL or RSA file creation because some default file already exists.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.4.4 mysql_tzinfo_to_sql Б─■ Load the Time Zone Tables

The mysql_tzinfo_to_sql program loads the time zone tables in the mysql database. It is used on systems that have a zoneinfo database (the set of files describing time zones). Examples of such systems are Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, and OS X. One likely location for these files is the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory (/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo on Solaris). If your system does not have a zoneinfo database, you can use the downloadable package described in раздел 11.6.

mysql_tzinfo_to_sql can be invoked several ways:

shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql tz_dir
shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql tz_file tz_name
shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql --leap tz_file
For the first invocation syntax, pass the zoneinfo directory path name to mysql_tzinfo_to_sql and send the output into the mysql program. For example:
shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql /usr/share/zoneinfo | mysql -u root mysql
mysql_tzinfo_to_sql reads your system's time zone files and generates SQL statements from them. mysql processes those statements to load the time zone tables.

The second syntax causes mysql_tzinfo_to_sql to load a single time zone file tz_file that corresponds to a time zone name tz_name:

shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql tz_file tz_name | mysql -u root mysql
If your time zone needs to account for leap seconds, invoke mysql_tzinfo_to_sql using the third syntax, which initializes the leap second information. tz_file is the name of your time zone file:
shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql --leap tz_file | mysql -u root mysql
After running mysql_tzinfo_to_sql, it is best to restart the server so that it does not continue to use any previously cached time zone data.

5.4.5 mysql_upgrade Б─■ Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see раздел 2.10.4, Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes for manual table repair strategies.

You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.

mysql_upgrade communicates directly with the MySQL server, sending it the SQL statements required to perform an upgrade.

On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.

You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See раздел 8.2, Database Backup Methods.

Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See раздел 2.10.1, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.

To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke it like this to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.

If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:

shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]
For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

mysql_upgrade processes all tables in all databases, which might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.

For details about what table-checking operations entail, see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see раздел 14.7.2.2).

All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.

mysql_upgrade checks user table rows and, for any row with an empty plugin column, sets that column to 'mysql_native_password' if the credentials use a hash format compatible with that plugin. Rows with a pre-4.1 password hash must be upgraded manually.

mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see раздел 6.1.10.

Unless invoked with the --skip-sys-schema option, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. mysql_upgrade returns an error if a sys schema exists but has no version view, on the assumption that its absence indicates a user-created schema:

Error occurred: A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If
you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the
upgrade to succeed.
To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing sys schema first.

mysql_upgrade checks for partitioned InnoDB tables that were created using the generic partitioning handler and attempts to upgrade them to InnoDB native partitioning. You can upgrade such tables individually in the mysql client using the ALTER TABLE ... UPGRADE PARTITIONING SQL statement.

By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again. First, connect to the server as root:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: <****  <- enter root password here
Reset the password using ALTER USER:
mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';
Then exit mysql and run mysql_upgrade again:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.7. mysql_upgrade Options

FormatDescription
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--force Force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for current version of MySQL
--help Display help message and exit
--host Connect to MySQL server on given host
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--max-allowed-packetMaximum packet length to send to or receive from server
--net-buffer-lengthBuffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--pipe On Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--skip-sys-schemaDo not install or upgrade the sys schema
--socketFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capathPath of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-certPath of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipherList of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crlPath of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpathPath of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-keyPath of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-modeSecurity state of connection to server
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--upgrade-system-tablesUpdate only system tables, not data
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseVerbose mode
--version-checkCheck for proper server version
--write-binlogWrite all statements to binary log
  • --help

    Display a short help message and exit.

  • --basedir=dir_name

    The path to the MySQL installation directory.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --compress , -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info , -T

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set. See раздел 11.5.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade normally reads the [client] and [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql_upgrade also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.

  • --force

    Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --max-allowed-packet=value

    The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is 24MB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 2GB.

  • --net-buffer-length=value

    The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is 1MB-1KB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 16MB.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql_upgrade prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --skip-sys-schema

    mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. The --skip-sys-schema option suppresses this behavior.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --upgrade-system-tables, -s

    Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is root.

  • --verbose

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

  • --version-check, -k

    Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use --skip-version-check.

  • --write-binlog

    By default, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is disabled. Invoke the program with --write-binlog if you want its actions to be written to the binary log.

    Running mysql_upgrade is not recommended with a MySQL Server that is running with global transaction identifiers enabled (Bug #13833710). This is because enabling GTIDs means that any updates which mysql_upgrade might need to perform on system tables using a nontransactional storage engine such as MyISAM to fail. See раздел 19.1.3.4, for more information.

5.5 MySQL Client Programs

This раздел describes client programs that connect to the MySQL server.

5.5.1 mysql Б─■ The MySQL Command-Line Tool

mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively, query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command options.

If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets, use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

Alternatively, MySQL Shell offers access to the X DevAPI. For details, see раздел 3.8.

Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command interpreter as follows:

shell> mysql db_name
Or:
shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name
Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

Typing Control+C interrupts the current statement if there is one, or cancels any partial input line otherwise.

You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

shell> mysql db_name < script.sql > em>output.tab
On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a history file. See раздел 5.5.1.3.

5.5.1.1 mysql Options

mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.8. mysql Options

FormatDescription
--auto-rehashEnable automatic rehashing
--auto-vertical-outputEnable automatic vertical result set display
--batch Do not use history file
--binary-modeDisable \r\n - to - \n translation and treatment of \0 as end-of-query
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed
--column-namesWrite column names in results
--column-type-infoDisplay result set metadata
--comments Whether to retain or strip comments in statements sent to the server
--compress Compress all information sent between client and server
--connect-expired-passwordIndicate to server that client can handle expired-password sandbox mode.
--connect_timeoutNumber of seconds before connection timeout
--database The database to use
--debug Write debugging log; supported only if MySQL was built with debugging support
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--delimiter Set the statement delimiter
--enable-cleartext-pluginEnable cleartext authentication plugin
--execute Execute the statement and quit
--force Continue even if an SQL error occurs
--help Display help message and exit
--histignorePatterns specifying which statements to ignore for logging
--host Connect to MySQL server on given host
--html Produce HTML output
--ignore-spacesIgnore spaces after function names
--init-commandSQL statement to execute after connecting
--line-numbersWrite line numbers for errors
--local-infileEnable or disable for LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--max_allowed_packetMaximum packet length to send to or receive from server
--max_join_sizeThe automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates
--named-commandsEnable named mysql commands
--net_buffer_lengthBuffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication
--no-auto-rehashDisable automatic rehashing
--no-beep Do not beep when errors occur
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--one-databaseIgnore statements except those for the default database named on the command line
--pager Use the given command for paging query output
--password Password to use when connecting to server
--pipe On Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--prompt Set the prompt to the specified format
--protocol Connection protocol to use
--quick Do not cache each query result
--raw Write column values without escape conversion
--reconnect If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to reconnect
--i-am-a-dummy, --safe-updatesAllow only UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify key values
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--select_limitThe automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates
--server-public-key-pathPath name to file containing RSA public key
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--show-warningsShow warnings after each statement if there are any
--sigint-ignoreIgnore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C)
--silent Silent mode
--skip-auto-rehashDisable automatic rehashing
--skip-column-namesDo not write column names in results
--skip-line-numbersSkip line numbers for errors
--skip-named-commandsDisable named mysql commands
--skip-pager Disable paging
--skip-reconnectDisable reconnecting
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capath Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-cert Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crl Path of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpath Path of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-key Path of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-mode Security state of connection to server
--syslog Log interactive statements to syslog
--table Display output in tabular format
--tee Append a copy of output to named file
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--unbufferedFlush the buffer after each query
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verbose Verbose mode
--version Display version information and exit
--vertical Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value)
--wait If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting
--xml Produce XML output
  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --auto-rehash

    Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which enables database, table, and column name completion. Use --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to start faster, but you must issue the rehash command or its \# shortcut if you want to use name completion.

    To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the name is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press Tab again to see the possible names that begin with what you have typed so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default database.

    This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the readline library. Typically, the readline library is not available on Windows.

  • --auto-vertical-output

    Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are too wide for the current window, and using normal tabular format otherwise. (This applies to statements terminated by ; or \G.)

  • --batch, -B

    Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

    Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw option.

  • --binary-mode

    This option helps when processing mysqlbinlog output that may contain BLOB values. By default, mysql translates \r\n in statement strings to \n and interprets \0 as the statement terminator. --binary-mode disables both features. It also disables all mysql commands except charset and delimiter in non-interactive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using the source command).

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --column-names

    Write column names in results.

  • --column-type-info

    Display result set metadata.

  • --comments, -c

    Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the server. The default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable with --comments (preserve comments).

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --connect-expired-password

    Indicate to the server that the client can handle sandbox mode if the account used to connect has an expired password. This can be useful for noninteractive invocations of mysql because normally the server disconnects noninteractive clients that attempt to connect using an account with an expired password. (See раздел 7.3.8.)

  • --database=db_name, -D db_name

    The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace.

    This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG. MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this option.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info, -T

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and connection.

    This option can be useful if the operating system uses one character set and the mysql client by default uses another. In this case, output may be formatted incorrectly. You can usually fix such issues by using this option to force the client to use the system character set instead.

    For more information, see раздел 11.1.4, and раздел 11.5.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql normally reads the [client] and [mysql] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_other] groups.

  • --delimiter=str

    Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character (;).

  • --disable-named-commands

    Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (;). mysql starts with this option enabled by default. However, even with this option, long-format commands still work from the first line. See раздел 5.5.1.2.

  • --enable-cleartext-plugin

    Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See раздел 7.5.1.4.)

  • --execute=statement, -e statement

    Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like that produced with --batch. See раздел 5.2.4, for some examples. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

  • --force, -f

    Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

  • --histignore

    A colon-separated list of one or more patterns specifying statements to ignore for logging purposes. These patterns are added to the default pattern list ("*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*"). The value specified for this option affects logging of statements written to the history file, and to syslog if the --syslog option is given. For more information, see раздел 5.5.1.3.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --html, -H

    Produce HTML output.

  • --ignore-spaces , -i

    Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see раздел 6.1.8).

  • --init-command=str

    SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server. If auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed again after reconnection occurs.

  • --line-numbers

    Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with --skip-line-numbers.

  • --local-infile[={0|1}]

    Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not also support it.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --named-commands, -G

    Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted, not just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands. See раздел 5.5.1.2.

  • --no-auto-rehash , -A

    This has the same effect as --skip-auto-rehash. See the description for --auto-rehash.

  • --no-beep, -b

    Do not beep when errors occur.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --one-database, -o

    Ignore statements except those that occur while the default database is the one named on the command line. This option is rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement filtering is based only on USE statements.

    Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because specifying a database db_name on the command line is equivalent to inserting USE db_name at the beginning of the input. Then, for each USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following statements depending on whether the database named is the one on the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.

    Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

    DELETE FROM db2.t2;
    USE db2;
    DROP TABLE db1.t1;
    CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
    USE db1;
    INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
    CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);
    
    If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql handles the input as follows:

    • The DELETE statement is executed because the default database is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different database.

    • The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed because the default database is not db1, even though the statements name a table in db1.
    • The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the default database is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE statement names a table in a different database.

  • --pager[=command]

    Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager. раздел 5.5.1.2, discusses output paging further.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --prompt=format_str

    Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in раздел 5.5.1.2.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --quick, -q

    Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received. This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

  • --raw, -r

    For tabular output, the boxing around columns enables one column value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or --silent option is given), special characters are escaped in the output so they can be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character escaping.

    The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

    % 
  • --reconnect

    If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use --skip-reconnect.

  • --safe-updates , --i-am-a-dummy , -U

    Permit only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the command line. See раздел 5.5.1.6, mysql Tips, for more information about this option.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --server-public-key-path=file_name

    The path name to a file containing the server RSA public key. The file must be in PEM format. The public key is used for RSA encryption of the client password for connections to the server made using accounts that authenticate with the sha256_password plugin. This option is ignored for client accounts that do not authenticate with that plugin. It is also ignored if password encryption is not needed, as is the case when the client connects to the server using an SSL connection.

    The server sends the public key to the client as needed, so it is not necessary to use this option for RSA password encryption to occur. It is more efficient to do so because then the server need not send the key.

    For additional discussion regarding use of the sha256_password plugin, including how to get the RSA public key, see раздел 7.5.1.2.

    This option is available only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --show-warnings

    Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any. This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

  • --sigint-ignore

    Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple times to produce less and less output.

    This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw option.

  • --skip-column-names, -N

    Do not write column names in results.

  • --skip-line-numbers, -L

    Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to compare result files that include error messages.

  • --socket=path , -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --syslog, -j

    This option causes mysql to send interactive statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the destination is often the /var/log/messages file.

    Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes a single line.

    Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
      SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
      DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
    Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
      SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
      DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'
    
    For more information, see раздел 5.5.1.3 .
  • --table, -t

    Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.

  • --tee=file_name

    Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only in interactive mode. раздел 5.5.1.2, discusses tee files further.

  • --tls-version= protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --unbuffered, -n

    Flush the buffer after each query.

  • --user=user_name , -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output. (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even in batch mode.)

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

  • --vertical, -E

    Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value). Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual statements by terminating them with \G.

  • --wait, -w

    If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting.

  • --xml, -X

    Produce XML output.

    <field name="column_name">NULL</field>
    
    The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump --xml. See раздел 5.5.4 for details.

    The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

    shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    
    <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
    <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
    </row>
    
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
    <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
    </row>
    
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
    <field name="Value">i686</field>
    </row>
    
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
    <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
    </row>
    </resultset>
    
    (See Bug #25946.)

You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value.

  • connect_timeout

    The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is 0.)

  • max_allowed_packet

    The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default is 16MB, the maximum is 1GB.

  • max_join_size

    The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates . (Default value is 1,000,000.)

  • net_buffer_length

    The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default value is 16KB.)

  • select_limit

    The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates . (Default value is 1,000.)

5.5.1.2 mysql Commands

mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets. For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:

mysql> help

List of all MySQL commands:
Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
? (\?) Synonym for `help'.
clear (\c) Clear the current input statement.
connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
edit(\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
ego (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
exit(\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
go(\g) Send command to mysql server.
help(\h) Display this help.
nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
notee (\t) Don't write into outfile.
pager (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
print (\p) Print current command.
prompt(\R) Change your mysql prompt.
quit(\q) Quit mysql.
rehash(\#) Rebuild completion hash.
source(\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
status(\s) Get status information from the server.
system(\!) Execute a system shell command.
tee (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given outfile.
use (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
   binlog with multi-byte charsets.
warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
resetconnection(\x) Clean session context.

For server side help, type 'help contents'
If mysql is invoked with the --binary-mode option, all mysql commands are disabled except charset and delimiter in non-interactive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using the source command).

Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

The use of short-form commands within multiple-line /* ... */ comments is not supported.

  • help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

    Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

    If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see раздел 5.5.1.4.

  • charset charset_name, \C charset_name

    Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement. This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the client and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled (which is not recommended), because the specified character set is used for reconnects.

  • clear, \c

    Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about executing the statement that you are entering.

  • connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

    Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are used.

  • delimiter str, \d str

    Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (;).

    The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`) characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either quote the string with a different quote character or escape the quote with a backslash (\) character. Backslash should be avoided outside of quoted strings because it is the escape character for MySQL. For an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the first space or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the matching quote on the line.

    mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement delimiter anywhere it occurs, except within quoted strings. Be careful about defining a delimiter that might occur within other words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, you will be unable to use the word INDEX in statements. mysql interprets this as INDE followed by the delimiter X.

    When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other than the default of ;, instances of that character are sent to the server without interpretation. However, the server itself still interprets ; as a statement delimiter and processes statements accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes into play for multiple-statement execution (see раздел 25.8.17), and for parsing the body of stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see раздел 21.1).

  • edit, \e

    Edit the current input statement. mysql checks the values of the EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

    The edit command works only in Unix.

  • ego, \G

    Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display the result using vertical format.

  • exit, \q

    Exit mysql.

  • go, \g

    Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

  • nopager, \n

    Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

    The nopager command works only in Unix.

  • notee, \t

    Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for tee.

  • nowarning, \w

    Disable display of warnings after each statement.

  • pager [command], \P [command]

    Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any other similar program. If you specify no value for the option, mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets the pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive mode.

    Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument; if given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the pager is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or stdout if no pager was specified.

    Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen() function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee option can be used instead to save query output, although it is not as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.

  • print, \p

    Print the current input statement without executing it.

  • prompt [str], \R [str]

    Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described later in this раздел.

    If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets the prompt to the default of mysql>.

  • quit, \q

    Exit mysql.

  • rehash, \#

    Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and column name completion while you are entering statements. (See the description for the --auto-rehash option.)

  • resetconnection, \x

    Reset the connection to clear the session state.

    Resetting a connection has effects similar to mysql_change_user() or an auto-reconnect except that the connection is not closed and reopened, and re-authentication is not done. See раздел 25.8.7.3) and see раздел 25.8.16).

    This example shows how resetconnection clears a value maintained in the session state:

    mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(3);
    +-------------------+
    | LAST_INSERT_ID(3) |
    +-------------------+
    | 3                 |
    +-------------------+
    
    mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
    +------------------+
    | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
    +------------------+
    | 3                |
    +------------------+
    
    mysql> resetconnection;
    mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
    +------------------+
    | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
    +------------------+
    | 0                |
    +------------------+
    
  • source file_name, \. file_name

    Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein. On Windows, you can specify path name separators as / or \\.

  • status, \s

    Provide status information about the connection and the server you are using. If you are running in --safe-updates mode, status also prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your queries.

  • system command, \! command

    Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

    The system command works only in Unix.

  • tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

    By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for debugging purposes also. mysql flushes results to the file after each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee functionality works only in interactive mode.

    You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command. Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can be disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables logging.

  • use db_name, \u db_name

    Use db_name as the default database.

  • warnings, \W

    Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).

Here are a few tips about the pager command:

  • You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the file:

    mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt
    
    You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use as your pager:
    mysql> pager less -n -i -S
    
  • In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to less can make the result set much more readable because you can scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys. You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the less manual page:
    shell> man less
    
  • The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is necessary:
    mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X
    
  • You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query output:
    mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
              < | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S
    
    In this example, the command would send query results to two files in two different directories on two different file systems mounted on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen using less.

You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results using the less program and still have everything appended into a file the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql. This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not others.

The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.

OptionDescription
\CThe current connection identifier
\cA counter that increments for each statement you issue
\DThe full current date
\dThe default database
\hThe server host
\lThe current delimiter
\mMinutes of the current time
\nA newline character
\OThe current month in three-letter format (Jan, Feb, Б─╕)
\oThe current month in numeric format
\Pam/pm
\pThe current TCP/IP port or socket file
\RThe current time, in 24-hour military time (0Б─⌠23)
\rThe current time, standard 12-hour time (1Б─⌠12)
\SSemicolon
\sSeconds of the current time
\tA tab character
\U

Your full user_name@host_name account name

\uYour user name
\vThe server version
\wThe current day of the week in three-letter format (Mon, Tue, Б─╕)
\YThe current year, four digits
\yThe current year, two digits
\_A space
\ A space (a space follows the backslash)
\'Single quote
\"Double quote
\\A literal \ backslash character
\x

x, for any x not listed above

You can set the prompt in several ways:

  • Use an environment variable. You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment variable to a prompt string. For example:

    shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
    
  • Use a command-line option. You can set the --prompt option on the command line to mysql. For example:
    shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
    (user@host) [database]>
    
  • Use an option file. You can set the prompt option in the [mysql] group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf file in your home directory. For example:
    [mysql]
    prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_
    
    In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt options. There is some overlap in the set of permissible prompt options and the set of special escape sequences that are recognized in option files. (The rules for escape sequences in option files are listed in раздел 5.2.6.) The overlap may cause you problems if you use single backslashes. For example, \s is interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds value. The following example shows how to define a prompt within an option file to include the current time in HH:MM:SS> format:
    [mysql]
    prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "
    
  • Set the prompt interactively. You can change your prompt interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:
    mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
    PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
    (user@host) [database]>
    (user@host) [database]> prompt
    Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>
    mysql><
    

5.5.1.3 mysql Logging

The mysql client can do these types of logging for statements executed interactively:

  • On Unix, mysql writes the statements to a history file. By default, this file is named .mysql_history in your home directory. To specify a different file, set the value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.

  • On all platforms, if the --syslog option is given, mysql writes the statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the destination is often the /var/log/messages file.

The following discussion describes characteristics that apply to all logging types and provides information specific to each logging type.

How Logging Occurs

For each enabled logging destination, statement logging occurs as follows:

  • Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements are noninteractive, for example, when read from a file or a pipe. It is also possible to suppress statement logging by using the --batch or --execute option.

  • Statements are ignored and not logged if they match any pattern in the ignore list. This list is described later.
  • mysql logs each nonignored, nonempty statement line individually.
  • If a nonignored statement spans multiple lines (not including the terminating delimiter), mysql concatenates the lines to form the complete statement, maps newlines to spaces, and logs the result, plus a delimiter.

Consequently, an input statement that spans multiple lines can be logged twice. Consider this input:

mysql> SELECT
-> 'Today is'
-> ,
-> CURDATE()
-> ;
In this case, mysql logs the SELECT, 'Today is', ,, CURDATE(), and ; lines as it reads them. It also logs the complete statement, after mapping SELECT\n'Today is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE(), plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines appear in logged output:
SELECT
'Today is'
,
CURDATE()
;
SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE();
mysql ignores for logging purposes statements that match any pattern in the ignore list. By default, the pattern list is "*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*", to ignore statements that refer to passwords. Pattern matching is not case sensitive. Within patterns, two characters are special:

  • ? matches any single character.

  • * matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

To specify additional patterns, use the --histignore option or set the MYSQL_HISTIGNORE environment variable. (If both are specified, the option value takes precedence.) The value should be a colon-separated list of one or more patterns, which are appended to the default pattern list.

Patterns specified on the command line might need to be quoted or escaped to prevent your command interpreter from treating them specially. For example, to suppress logging for UPDATE and DELETE statements in addition to statements that refer to passwords, invoke mysql like this:

shell> mysql --histignore="*UPDATE*:*DELETE*"
Controlling the History File

The .mysql_history file should be protected with a restrictive access mode because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the text of SQL statements that contain passwords. See раздел 7.1.2.1.

If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove .mysql_history if it exists. Then use either of the following techniques to prevent it from being created again:

  • Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to /dev/null. To cause this setting to take effect each time you log in, put it in one of your shell's startup files.

  • Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null; this need be done only once:
    shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history
    
syslog Logging Characteristics

If the --syslog option is given, mysql writes interactive statements to the system logging facility. Message logging has the following characteristics.

Logging occurs at the information level. This corresponds to the LOG_INFO priority for syslog on Unix/Linux syslog capability and to EVENTLOG_INFORMATION_TYPE for the Windows Event Log. Consult your system documentation for configuration of your logging capability.

Message size is limited to 1024 bytes.

Messages consist of the identifier MysqlClient followed by these values:

  • SYSTEM_USER

    The system user name (login name) or -- if the user is unknown.

  • MYSQL_USER

    The MySQL user name (specified with the --user option) or -- if the user is unknown.

  • CONNECTION_ID:

    The client connection identifier. This is the same as the CONNECTION_ID() function value within the session.

  • DB_SERVER

    The server host or -- if the host is unknown.

  • DB

    The default database or -- if no database has been selected.

  • QUERY

    The text of the logged statement.

Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes a single line.

Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
  SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
  DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
  SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
  DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

5.5.1.4 mysql Server-Side Help

mysql> help search_string
If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires that the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help topic information (see раздел 6.1.10).

If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

mysql> help me

Nothing found
Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics
Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:
mysql> help contents
You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
following categories:
   Account Management
   Administration
   Data Definition
   Data Manipulation
   Data Types
   Functions
   Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
   Geographic Features
   Language Structure
   Plugins
   Storage Engines
   Stored Routines
   Table Maintenance
   Transactions
   Triggers
If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of matching topics:
mysql> help logs
Many help items for your request exist.
To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
where <item> is one of the following topics:
   SHOW
   SHOW BINARY LOGS
   SHOW ENGINE
   SHOW LOGS
Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:
mysql> help show binary logs
Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
Description:
Syntax:
SHOW BINARY LOGS
SHOW MASTER LOGS

Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
to determine which logs can be purged.

mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
+---------------+-----------+
| Log_name      | File_size |
+---------------+-----------+
| binlog.000015 | 724935    |
| binlog.000016 | 733481    |
+---------------+-----------+
The search string can contain the wildcard characters % and _. These have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with the LIKE operator. For example, HELP rep% returns a list of topics that begin with rep:
mysql> HELP rep%
Many help items for your request exist.
To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
where <item> is one of the following
topics:
   REPAIR TABLE
   REPEAT FUNCTION
   REPEAT LOOP
   REPLACE
   REPLACE FUNCTION

5.5.1.5 Executing SQL Statements from a Text File

The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

shell> mysql db_name
However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute. Then invoke mysql as shown here:
shell> mysql db_name < text_file
If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command line:
shell> mysql < text_file
If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file using the source command or \. command:
mysql> source file_name
mysql> \. file_name
Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to the user. For this you can insert statements like this:
SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';
The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.

mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the beginning of input files. Previously, it read them and sent them to the server, resulting in a syntax error. Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to change its default character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an option such as --default-character-set=utf8.

For more information about batch mode, see раздел 4.5.

5.5.1.6 mysql Tips

This раздел describes some techniques that can help you use mysql more effectively.

5.5.1.6.1 Input-Line Editing

mysql supports input-line editing, which enables you to modify the current input line in place or recall previous input lines. For example, the left-arrow and right-arrow keys move horizontally within the current input line, and the up-arrow and down-arrow keys move up and down through the set of previously entered lines. Backspace deletes the character before the cursor and typing new characters enters them at the cursor position. To enter the line, press Enter.

On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for command editing in console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend on the input library used to build mysql (for example, the libedit or readline library).

Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available online. To change the set of key sequences permitted by a given input library, define key bindings in the library startup file. This is a file in your home directory: .editrc for libedit and .inputrc for readline.

For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the current cursor position and Control+U deletes the entire line. In readline, Control+W deletes the word before the cursor and Control+U deletes everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was built using libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for these two keys can put the following lines in the .editrc file (creating the file if necessary):

bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word
bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev
To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that says only bind at the end of .editrc. mysql will show the bindings when it starts.

5.5.1.6.2 Unicode Support on Windows

Windows provides APIs based on UTF-16LE for reading from and writing to the console; the mysql client for Windows is able to use these APIs. The Windows installer creates an item in the MySQL menu named MySQL command line client - Unicode. This item invokes the mysql client with properties set to communicate through the console to the MySQL server using Unicode.

To take advantage of this support manually, run mysql within a console that uses a compatible Unicode font and set the default character set to a Unicode character set that is supported for communication with the server:

  1. Open a console window.

  2. Go to the console window properties, select the font tab, and choose Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font. This is necessary because console windows start by default using a DOS raster font that is inadequate for Unicode.
  3. Execute mysql.exe with the --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option. This option is necessary because utf16le is not supported as a connection character set.

With those changes, mysql will use the Windows APIs to communicate with the console using UTF-16LE, and communicate with the server using UTF-8. (The menu item mentioned previously sets the font and character set as just described.)

To avoid those steps each time you run mysql, you can create a shortcut that invokes mysql.exe. The shortcut should set the console font to Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font, and pass the --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option to mysql.exe.

Alternatively, create a shortcut that only sets the console font, and set the character set in the [mysql] group of your my.ini file:

[mysql]
default-character-set=utf8
5.5.1.6.3 Displaying Query Results Vertically

Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically, instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often are much easier to read with vertical output:

mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  msg_nro: 3068
 date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
time_zone: +0200
mail_from: Monty
reply: monty@no.spam.com
  mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <tim@no.spam.com>
sbj: UTF-8
txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:

Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.

Yes, please do that.

Regards,
Monty
 file: inbox-jani-1
 hash: 190402944
1 row in set (0.09 sec)
5.5.1.6.4 Using the --safe-updates Option

For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). It is helpful for cases when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a statement deletes all rows from the table. With --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by specifying the key values that identify them. This helps prevent accidents.

When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following statement when it connects to the MySQL server:

SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, max_join_size=1000000;
See раздел 6.1.5, Server System Variables.

The SET statement has the following effects:

  • You are not permitted to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement unless you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide a LIMIT clause (or both). For example:

    UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
    UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;
    
  • The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless the statement includes a LIMIT clause.
  • The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override the defaults by using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:

shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000
5.5.1.6.5 Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect

If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you, as in the following example where the server was shut down and restarted between the first and second statements without you knowing it:

mysql> SET @a=1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
No connection. Trying to reconnect...
Connection id:1
Current database: test

Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
+------+
| a    |
+------+
| NULL |
+------+
1 row in set (0.05 sec)
The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state information when a reconnection occurs, see раздел 25.8.16.

5.5.2 mysqladmin Б─■ Client for Administering a MySQL Server

mysqladmin is a client for performing administrative operations. You can use it to check the server's configuration and current status, to create and drop databases, and more.

Invoke mysqladmin like this:

shell> mysqladmin [options] command [command-arg] [command [command-arg]] ...
mysqladmin supports the following commands. Some of the commands take an argument following the command name.

  • create db_name

    Create a new database named db_name.

  • debug

    Tell the server to write debug information to the error log. Format and content of this information is subject to change.

    This includes information about the Event Scheduler. See раздел 21.4.5.

  • drop db_name

    Delete the database named db_name and all its tables.

  • extended-status

    Display the server status variables and their values.

  • flush-hosts

    Flush all information in the host cache.

  • flush-logs [log_type ...]

    Flush all logs.

    The mysqladmin flush-logs command permits optional log types to be given, to specify which logs to flush. Following the flush-logs command, you can provide a space-separated list of one or more of the following log types: binary, engine, error, general, relay, slow. These correspond to the log types that can be specified for the FLUSH LOGS SQL statement.

  • flush-privileges

    Reload the grant tables (same as reload).

  • flush-status

    Clear status variables.

  • flush-tables

    Flush all tables.

  • flush-threads

    Flush the thread cache.

  • kill id,id,...

    Kill server threads. If multiple thread ID values are given, there must be no spaces in the list.

  • password new_password

    Set a new password. This changes the password to new_password for the account that you use with mysqladmin for connecting to the server. Thus, the next time you invoke mysqladmin (or any other client program) using the same account, you will need to specify the new password.

    If the new_password value contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter, you need to enclose it within quotation marks. On Windows, be sure to use double quotation marks rather than single quotation marks; single quotation marks are not stripped from the password, but rather are interpreted as part of the password. For example:

    shell> mysqladmin password "my new password"
    
    In MySQL 8.0, the new password can be omitted following the password command. In this case, mysqladmin prompts for the password value, which enables you to avoid specifying the password on the command line. Omitting the password value should be done only if password is the final command on the mysqladmin command line. Otherwise, the next argument is taken as the password.

    Do not use this command used if the server was started with the --skip-grant-tables option. No password change will be applied. This is true even if you precede the password command with flush-privileges on the same command line to re-enable the grant tables because the flush operation occurs after you connect. However, you can use mysqladmin flush-privileges to re-enable the grant table and then use a separate mysqladmin password command to change the password.

  • ping

    Check whether the server is available. The return status from mysqladmin is 0 if the server is running, 1 if it is not. This is 0 even in case of an error such as Access denied, because this means that the server is running but refused the connection, which is different from the server not running.

  • processlist

    Show a list of active server threads. This is like the output of the SHOW PROCESSLIST statement. If the --verbose option is given, the output is like that of SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST. (See раздел 14.7.5.29.)

  • reload

    Reload the grant tables.

  • refresh

    Flush all tables and close and open log files.

  • shutdown

    Stop the server.

  • start-slave

    Start replication on a slave server.

  • status

    Display a short server status message.

  • stop-slave

    Stop replication on a slave server.

  • variables

    Display the server system variables and their values.

  • version

    Display version information from the server.

All commands can be shortened to any unique prefix. For example:

shell> mysqladmin proc stat
+----+-------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| Id | User  | Host      | db | Command | Time | State | Info             |
+----+-------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| 51 | monty | localhost |    | Query   |    0 |       | show processlist |
+----+-------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
Uptime: 1473624  Threads: 1  Questions: 39487
Slow queries: 0  Opens: 541  Flush tables: 1
Open tables: 19  Queries per second avg: 0.0268

The mysqladmin status command result displays the following values:

  • Uptime

    The number of seconds the MySQL server has been running.

  • Threads

    The number of active threads (clients).

  • Questions

    The number of questions (queries) from clients since the server was started.

  • Slow queries

    The number of queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds. See раздел 6.4.5, The Slow Query Log.

  • Opens

    The number of tables the server has opened.

  • Flush tables

    The number of flush-*, refresh, and reload commands the server has executed.

  • Open tables

    The number of tables that currently are open.

If you execute mysqladmin shutdown when connecting to a local server using a Unix socket file, mysqladmin waits until the server's process ID file has been removed, to ensure that the server has stopped properly.

mysqladmin supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqladmin] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.9. mysqladmin Options

FormatDescription
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--connect_timeoutNumber of seconds before connection timeout
--count Number of iterations to make for repeated command execution
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--enable-cleartext-pluginEnable cleartext authentication plugin
--force Continue even if an SQL error occurs
--help Display help message and exit
--host Connect to MySQL server on given host
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--no-beepDo not beep when errors occur
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--pipe On Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--relativeShow the difference between the current and previous values when used with the --sleep option
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--show-warningsShow warnings after statement execution
--shutdown_timeoutThe maximum number of seconds to wait for server shutdown
--silent Silent mode
--sleep Execute commands repeatedly, sleeping for delay seconds in between
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capath Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-cert Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crl Path of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpathPath of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-key Path of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-mode Security state of connection to server
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
--verticalPrint query output rows vertically (one line per column value)
--wait If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting
  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --count=N, -c N

    The number of iterations to make for repeated command execution if the --sleep option is given.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysqladmin.trace.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set. See раздел 11.5.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqladmin normally reads the [client] and [mysqladmin] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqladmin also reads the [client_other] and [mysqladmin_other] groups.

  • --enable-cleartext-plugin

    Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See раздел 7.5.1.4.)

  • --force, -f

    Do not ask for confirmation for the drop db_name command. With multiple commands, continue even if an error occurs.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --no-beep, -b

    Suppress the warning beep that is emitted by default for errors such as a failure to connect to the server.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqladmin prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqladmin does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • - -port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --relative, -r

    Show the difference between the current and previous values when used with the --sleep option. This option works only with the extended-status command.

  • --show-warnings

    Show warnings resulting from execution of statements sent to the server.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --silent, -s

    Exit silently if a connection to the server cannot be established.

  • --sleep=delay, -i delay

    Execute commands repeatedly, sleeping for delay seconds in between. The --count option determines the number of iterations. If --count is not given, mysqladmin executes commands indefinitely until interrupted.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

  • --vertical, -E

    Print output vertically. This is similar to --relative, but prints output vertically.

  • --wait[=count], -w[count]

    If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting. If a count value is given, it indicates the number of times to retry. The default is one time.

You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value.

  • connect_timeout

    The maximum number of seconds before connection timeout. The default value is 43200 (12 hours).

  • shutdown_timeout

    The maximum number of seconds to wait for server shutdown. The default value is 3600 (1 hour).

5.5.3 mysqlcheck Б─■ A Table Maintenance Program

The mysqlcheck client performs table maintenance: It checks, repairs, optimizes, or analyzes tables.

Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed, although for check operations, the table is locked with a READ lock only (see раздел 14.3.5, for more information about READ and WRITE locks). Table maintenance operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables. If you use the --databases or --all-databases option to process all tables in one or more databases, an invocation of mysqlcheck might take a long time. (This is also true for mysql_upgrade because that program invokes mysqlcheck to check all tables and repair them if necessary.)

mysqlcheck is similar in function to myisamchk, but works differently. The main operational difference is that mysqlcheck must be used when the mysqld server is running, whereas myisamchk should be used when it is not. The benefit of using mysqlcheck is that you do not have to stop the server to perform table maintenance.

mysqlcheck uses the SQL statements CHECK TABLE, REPAIR TABLE, ANALYZE TABLE, and OPTIMIZE TABLE in a convenient way for the user. It determines which statements to use for the operation you want to perform, and then sends the statements to the server to be executed. For details about which storage engines each statement works with, see the descriptions for those statements in раздел 14.7.2, Table Maintenance Statements.

The MyISAM storage engine supports all four maintenance operations, so mysqlcheck can be used to perform any of them on MyISAM tables. Other storage engines do not necessarily support all operations. In such cases, an error message is displayed. For example, if test.t is a MEMORY table, an attempt to check it produces this result:

shell> mysqlcheck test t
test.t
note : The storage engine for the table doesn't support check
If mysqlcheck is unable to repair a table, see раздел 2.10.4, Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes for manual table repair strategies. This will be the case, for example, for InnoDB tables, which can be checked with CHECK TABLE, but not repaired with REPAIR TABLE.

It is best to make a backup of a table before performing a table repair operation; under some circumstances the operation might cause data loss. Possible causes include but are not limited to file system errors.

There are three general ways to invoke mysqlcheck:

shell> mysqlcheck [options] db_name [tbl_name ...]
shell> mysqlcheck [options] --databases db_name ...
shell> mysqlcheck [options] --all-databases
If you do not name any tables following db_name or if you use the --databases or --all-databases option, entire databases are checked.

mysqlcheck has a special feature compared to other client programs. The default behavior of checking tables (--check) can be changed by renaming the binary. If you want to have a tool that repairs tables by default, you should just make a copy of mysqlcheck named mysqlrepair, or make a symbolic link to mysqlcheck named mysqlrepair. If you invoke mysqlrepair, it repairs tables.

The names shown in the following table can be used to change mysqlcheck default behavior.

CommandMeaning
mysqlrepair The default option is --repair
mysqlanalyze The default option is --analyze
mysqloptimize The default option is --optimize

mysqlcheck supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlcheck] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.10. mysqlcheck Options

FormatDescription
--all-databasesCheck all tables in all databases
--all-in-1Execute a single statement for each database that names all the tables from that database
--analyzeAnalyze the tables
--auto-repairIf a checked table is corrupted, automatically fix it
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed
--check Check the tables for errors
--check-only-changedCheck only tables that have changed since the last check
--check-upgradeInvoke CHECK TABLE with the FOR UPGRADE option
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--databasesInterpret all arguments as database names
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--enable-cleartext-pluginEnable cleartext authentication plugin
--extendedCheck and repair tables
--fast Check only tables that have not been closed properly
--force Continue even if an SQL error occurs
--help Display help message and exit
--host Connect to MySQL server on given host
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--medium-checkDo a check that is faster than an --extended operation
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--optimizeOptimize the tables
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--pipe On Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--quick The fastest method of checking
--repair Perform a repair that can fix almost anything except unique keys that are not unique
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--silent Silent mode
--skip-databaseOmit this database from performed operations
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capath Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-cert Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crl Path of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpathPath of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-key Path of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-mode Security state of connection to server
--tables Overrides the --databases or -B option
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--use-frmFor repair operations on MyISAM tables
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
--write-binlogLog ANALYZE, OPTIMIZE, REPAIR statements to binary log. --skip-write-binlog adds NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG to these statements.
  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --all-databases, -A

    Check all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the --databases option and naming all the databases on the command line, except that the INFORMATION_SCHEMA and performace_schema databases are not checked. They can be checked by explicitly naming them with the --databases option.

  • --all-in-1, -1

    Instead of issuing a statement for each table, execute a single statement for each database that names all the tables from that database to be processed.

  • --analyze, -a

    Analyze the tables.

  • --auto-repair

    If a checked table is corrupted, automatically fix it. Any necessary repairs are done after all tables have been checked.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --check, -c

    Check the tables for errors. This is the default operation.

  • --check-only-changed, -C

    Check only tables that have changed since the last check or that have not been closed properly.

  • --check-upgrade, -g

    Invoke CHECK TABLE with the FOR UPGRADE option to check tables for incompatibilities with the current version of the server.

  • --compress

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --databases, -B

    Process all tables in the named databases. Normally, mysqlcheck treats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and any following names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set. See раздел 11.5.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqlcheck normally reads the [client] and [mysqlcheck] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqlcheck also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlcheck_other] groups.

  • --extended, -e

    If you are using this option to check tables, it ensures that they are 100% consistent but takes a long time.

    If you are using this option to repair tables, it runs an extended repair that may not only take a long time to execute, but may produce a lot of garbage rows also!

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --enable-cleartext-plugin

    Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See раздел 7.5.1.4.)

  • --fast, -F

    Check only tables that have not been closed properly.

  • --force, -f

    Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --medium-check, -m

    Do a check that is faster than an --extended operation. This finds only 99.99% of all errors, which should be good enough in most cases.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --optimize, -o

    Optimize the tables.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlcheck prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlcheck does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --quick, -q

    If you are using this option to check tables, it prevents the check from scanning the rows to check for incorrect links. This is the fastest check method.

    If you are using this option to repair tables, it tries to repair only the index tree. This is the fastest repair method.

  • --repair, -r

    Perform a repair that can fix almost anything except unique keys that are not unique.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Print only error messages.

  • --skip-database=db_name

    Do not include the named database (case sensitive) in the operations performed by mysqlcheck.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tables

    Override the --databases or -B option. All name arguments following the option are regarded as table names.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --use-frm

    For repair operations on MyISAM tables, get the table structure from the data dictionary so that the table can be repaired even if the .MYI header is corrupted.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print information about the various stages of program operation.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

  • --write-binlog

    This option is enabled by default, so that ANALYZE TABLE, OPTIMIZE TABLE, and REPAIR TABLE statements generated by mysqlcheck are written to the binary log. Use --skip-write-binlog to cause NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG to be added to the statements so that they are not logged. Use the --skip-write-binlog when these statements should not be sent to replication slaves or run when using the binary logs for recovery from backup.

5.5.4 mysqldump Б─■ A Database Backup Program

The mysqldump client utility performs logical backups, producing a set of SQL statements that can be executed to reproduce the original database object definitions and table data. It dumps one or more MySQL databases for backup or transfer to another SQL server. The mysqldump command can also generate output in CSV, other delimited text, or XML format.

mysqldump requires at least the SELECT privilege for dumped tables, SHOW VIEW for dumped views, TRIGGER for dumped triggers, and LOCK TABLES if the --single-transaction option is not used. Certain options might require other privileges as noted in the option descriptions.

To reload a dump file, you must have the privileges required to execute the statements that it contains, such as the appropriate CREATE privileges for objects created by those statements.

mysqldump output can include ALTER DATABASE statements that change the database collation. These may be used when dumping stored programs to preserve their character encodings. To reload a dump file containing such statements, the ALTER privilege for the affected database is required.

A dump made using PowerShell on Windows with output redirection creates a file that has UTF-16 encoding:

shell> mysqldump [options] > dump.sql
However, UTF-16 is not permitted as a connection character set (see раздел 11.1.4), so the dump file will not load correctly. To work around this issue, use the --result-file option, which creates the output in ASCII format:
shell> mysqldump [options] --result-file=dump.sql

Performance and Scalability Considerations

mysqldump advantages include the convenience and flexibility of viewing or even editing the output before restoring. You can clone databases for development and DBA work, or produce slight variations of an existing database for testing. It is not intended as a fast or scalable solution for backing up substantial amounts of data. With large data sizes, even if the backup step takes a reasonable time, restoring the data can be very slow because replaying the SQL statements involves disk I/O for insertion, index creation, and so on.

For large-scale backup and restore, a physical backup is more appropriate, to copy the data files in their original format that can be restored quickly:

  • If your tables are primarily InnoDB tables, or if you have a mix of InnoDB and MyISAM tables, consider using the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product. (Available as part of the Enterprise subscription.) It provides the best performance for InnoDB backups with minimal disruption; it can also back up tables from MyISAM and other storage engines; and it provides a number of convenient options to accommodate different backup scenarios. See раздел 27.2.

mysqldump can retrieve and dump table contents row by row, or it can retrieve the entire content from a table and buffer it in memory before dumping it. Buffering in memory can be a problem if you are dumping large tables. To dump tables row by row, use the --quick option (or --opt, which enables --quick). The --opt option (and hence --quick) is enabled by default, so to enable memory buffering, use --skip-quick.

If you are using a recent version of mysqldump to generate a dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, use the --skip-opt option instead of the --opt or --extended-insert option.

For additional information about mysqldump, see раздел 8.4.

Invocation Syntax

There are in general three ways to use mysqldumpБ─■in order to dump a set of one or more tables, a set of one or more complete databases, or an entire MySQL serverБ─■as shown here:

shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name ...]
shell> mysqldump [options] --databases db_name ...
shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases
To dump entire databases, do not name any tables following db_name, or use the --databases or --all-databases option.

To see a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports, issue the command mysqldump --help.

Option Syntax - Alphabetical Summary

mysqldump supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqldump] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.11. mysqldump Options

FormatDescription
--add-drop-databaseAdd DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement
--add-drop-tableAdd DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement
--add-drop-triggerAdd DROP TRIGGER statement before each CREATE TRIGGER statement
--add-locksSurround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES statements
--all-databasesDump all tables in all databases
--allow-keywordsAllow creation of column names that are keywords
--apply-slave-statementsInclude STOP SLAVE prior to CHANGE MASTER statement and START SLAVE at end of output
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed
--commentsAdd comments to dump file
--compactProduce more compact output
--compatibleProduce output that is more compatible with other database systems or with older MySQL servers
--complete-insertUse complete INSERT statements that include column names
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--create-optionsInclude all MySQL-specific table options in CREATE TABLE statements
--databasesInterpret all name arguments as database names
--debugWrite debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--delete-master-logsOn a master replication server, delete the binary logs after performing the dump operation
--disable-keysFor each table, surround INSERT statements with statements to disable and enable keys
--dump-dateInclude dump date as "Dump completed on" comment if --comments is given
--dump-slaveInclude CHANGE MASTER statement that lists binary log coordinates of slave's master
--enable-cleartext-pluginEnable cleartext authentication plugin
--eventsDump events from dumped databases
--extended-insertUse multiple-row INSERT syntax
--fields-enclosed-byThis option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--fields-escaped-byThis option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--fields-optionally-enclosed-byThis option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--fields-terminated-byThis option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--flush-logsFlush MySQL server log files before starting dump
--flush-privilegesEmit a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement after dumping mysql database
--forceContinue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump
--helpDisplay help message and exit
--hex-blobDump binary columns using hexadecimal notation
--hostHost to connect to (IP address or hostname)
--ignore-errorIgnore specified errors
--ignore-tableDo not dump given table
--include-master-host-portInclude MASTER_HOST/MASTER_PORT options in CHANGE MASTER statement produced with --dump-slave
--insert-ignoreWrite INSERT IGNORE rather than INSERT statements
--lines-terminated-byThis option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--lock-all-tablesLock all tables across all databases
--lock-tablesLock all tables before dumping them
--log-errorAppend warnings and errors to named file
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--master-dataWrite the binary log file name and position to the output
--max_allowed_packetMaximum packet length to send to or receive from server
--net_buffer_lengthBuffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication
--no-autocommitEnclose the INSERT statements for each dumped table within SET autocommit = 0 and COMMIT statements
--no-create-dbDo not write CREATE DATABASE statements
--no-create-infoDo not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped table
--no-dataDo not dump table contents
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--no-set-namesSame as --skip-set-charset
--no-tablespacesDo not write any CREATE LOGFILE GROUP or CREATE TABLESPACE statements in output
--opt Shorthand for --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset.
--order-by-primaryDump each table's rows sorted by its primary key, or by its first unique index
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--pipeOn Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--portTCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--quick Retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time
--quote-namesQuote identifiers within backtick characters
--replaceWrite REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements
--result-fileDirect output to a given file
--routinesDump stored routines (procedures and functions) from dumped databases
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--set-charsetAdd SET NAMES default_character_set to output
--set-gtid-purgedWhether to add SET @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED to output
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--single-transactionIssue a BEGIN SQL statement before dumping data from server
--skip-add-drop-tableDo not add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement
--skip-add-locksDo not add locks
--skip-commentsDo not add comments to dump file
--skip-compactDo not produce more compact output
--skip-disable-keysDo not disable keys
--skip-extended-insertTurn off extended-insert
--skip-optTurn off options set by --opt
--skip-quickDo not retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time
--skip-quote-namesDo not quote identifiers
--skip-set-charsetDo not write SET NAMES statement
--skip-triggersDo not dump triggers
--skip-tz-utcTurn off tz-utc
--socketFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-caPath of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capathPath of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-certPath of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipherList of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crlPath of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpathPath of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-keyPath of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-modeSecurity state of connection to server
--tabProduce tab-separated data files
--tablesOverride --databases or -B option
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--triggersDump triggers for each dumped table
--tz-utcAdd SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to dump file
--userMySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
--whereDump only rows selected by given WHERE condition
--xmlProduce XML output

Connection Options

The mysqldump command logs into a MySQL server to extract information. The following options specify how to connect to the MySQL server, either on the same machine or a remote system.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --enable-cleartext-plugin

    Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See раздел 7.5.1.4.)

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host is localhost.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqldump prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqldump does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it ( --skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value syntax:

  • max_allowed_packet

    The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default is 24MB, the maximum is 1GB.

  • net_buffer_length

    The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When creating multiple-row INSERT statements (as with the --extended-insert or --opt option), mysqldump creates rows up to net_buffer_length bytes long. If you increase this variable, ensure that the MySQL server net_buffer_length system variable has a value at least this large.

Option-File Options

These options are used to control which option files to read.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file= file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqldump normally reads the [client] and [mysqldump] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqldump also reads the [client_other] and [mysqldump_other] groups.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

DDL Options

Usage scenarios for mysqldump include setting up an entire new MySQL instance (including database tables), and replacing data inside an existing instance with existing databases and tables. The following options let you specify which things to tear down and set up when restoring a dump, by encoding various DDL statements within the dump file.

  • --add-drop-database

    Write a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement. This option is typically used in conjunction with the --all-databases or --databases option because no CREATE DATABASE statements are written unless one of those options is specified.

  • --add-drop-table

    Write a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

  • --add-drop-trigger

    Write a DROP TRIGGER statement before each CREATE TRIGGER statement.

  • --all-tablespaces, -Y

    Adds to a table dump all SQL statements needed to create any tablespaces used by an NDB table. This information is not otherwise included in the output from mysqldump. This option is currently relevant only to MySQL Cluster tables, which are not supported in MySQL 8.0.

  • --no-create-db, -n

    Suppress the CREATE DATABASE statements that are otherwise included in the output if the --databases or --all-databases option is given.

  • --no-create-info, -t

    Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that create each dumped table.

    This option does not exclude statements creating log file groups or tablespaces from mysqldump output; however, you can use the --no-tablespaces option for this purpose.

  • --no-tablespaces, -y

    This option suppresses all CREATE LOGFILE GROUP and CREATE TABLESPACE statements in the output of mysqldump.

  • --replace

    Write REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements.

Debug Options

The following options print debugging information, encode debugging information in the dump file, or let the dump operation proceed regardless of potential problems.

  • --allow-keywords

    Permit creation of column names that are keywords. This works by prefixing each column name with the table name.

  • --comments, -i

    Write additional information in the dump file such as program version, server version, and host. This option is enabled by default. To suppress this additional information, use --skip-comments.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default value is d:t:o,/tmp/mysqldump.trace.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --dump-date

    If the --comments option is given, mysqldump produces a comment at the end of the dump of the following form:

    -- Dump completed on DATE
    
    However, the date causes dump files taken at different times to appear to be different, even if the data are otherwise identical. --dump-date and --skip-dump-date control whether the date is added to the comment. The default is --dump-date (include the date in the comment). --skip-dump-date suppresses date printing.
  • --force, -f

    Ignore all errors; continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.

    One use for this option is to cause mysqldump to continue executing even when it encounters a view that has become invalid because the definition refers to a table that has been dropped. Without --force, mysqldump exits with an error message. With --force, mysqldump prints the error message, but it also writes an SQL comment containing the view definition to the dump output and continues executing.

    If the --ignore-error option is also given to ignore specific errors, --force takes precedence.

  • --log-error=file_name

    Log warnings and errors by appending them to the named file. The default is to do no logging.

  • --skip-comments

    See the description for the --comments option.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

Help Options

The following options display information about the mysqldump command itself.

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

Internationalization Options

The following options change how the mysqldump command represents character data with national language settings.

Replication Options

The mysqldump command is frequently used to create an empty instance, or an instance including data, on a slave server in a replication configuration. The following options apply to dumping and restoring data on replication master and slave servers.

  • --apply-slave-statements

    For a slave dump produced with the --dump-slave option, add a STOP SLAVE statement before the CHANGE MASTER TO statement and a START SLAVE statement at the end of the output.

  • --delete-master-logs

    On a master replication server, delete the binary logs by sending a PURGE BINARY LOGS statement to the server after performing the dump operation. This option automatically enables --master-data.

  • --dump-slave[=value]

    This option is similar to --master-data except that it is used to dump a replication slave server to produce a dump file that can be used to set up another server as a slave that has the same master as the dumped server. It causes the dump output to include a CHANGE MASTER TO statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name and position) of the dumped slave's master. The CHANGE MASTER TO statement reads the values of Relay_Master_Log_File and Exec_Master_Log_Pos from the SHOW SLAVE STATUS output and uses them for MASTER_LOG_FILE and MASTER_LOG_POS respectively. These are the master server coordinates from which the slave should start replicating.

    Inconsistencies in the sequence of transactions from the relay log which have been executed can cause the wrong position to be used. See раздел 19.4.1.34 for more information.

    --dump-slave causes the coordinates from the master to be used rather than those of the dumped server, as is done by the --master-data option. In addition, specfiying this option causes the --master-data option to be overridden, if used, and effectively ignored.

    This option should not be used if the server where the dump is going to be applied uses gtid_mode=ON and MASTER_AUTOPOSITION=1.

    The option value is handled the same way as for --master-data (setting no value or 1 causes a CHANGE MASTER TO statement to be written to the dump, setting 2 causes the statement to be written but encased in SQL comments) and has the same effect as --master-data in terms of enabling or disabling other options and in how locking is handled.

    This option causes mysqldump to stop the slave SQL thread before the dump and restart it again after.

    In conjunction with --dump-slave, the --apply-slave-statements and --include-master-host-port options can also be used.

  • --include-master-host-port

    For the CHANGE MASTER TO statement in a slave dump produced with the --dump-slave option, add MASTER_HOST and MASTER_PORT options for the host name and TCP/IP port number of the slave's master.

  • --master-data[=value]

    Use this option to dump a master replication server to produce a dump file that can be used to set up another server as a slave of the master. It causes the dump output to include a CHANGE MASTER TO statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name and position) of the dumped server. These are the master server coordinates from which the slave should start replicating after you load the dump file into the slave.

    If the option value is 2, the CHANGE MASTER TO statement is written as an SQL comment, and thus is informative only; it has no effect when the dump file is reloaded. If the option value is 1, the statement is not written as a comment and takes effect when the dump file is reloaded. If no option value is specified, the default value is 1.

    This option requires the RELOAD privilege and the binary log must be enabled.

    The --master-data option automatically turns off --lock-tables. It also turns on --lock-all-tables, unless --single-transaction also is specified, in which case, a global read lock is acquired only for a short time at the beginning of the dump (see the description for --single-transaction). In all cases, any action on logs happens at the exact moment of the dump.

    It is also possible to set up a slave by dumping an existing slave of the master, using the --dump-slave option, which overrides --master-data and causes it to be ignored if both options are used.

  • --set-gtid-purged=value

    This option enables control over global transaction ID (GTID) information written to the dump file, by indicating whether to add a SET @@global.gtid_purged statement to the output. This option may also cause a statement to be written to the output that disables binary logging while the dump file is being reloaded.

    The following table shows the permitted option values. The default value is AUTO.

    ValueMeaning
    OFFAdd no SET statement to the output.
    ONAdd a SET statement to the output. An error occurs if GTIDs are not enabled on the server.
    AUTOAdd a SET statement to the output if GTIDs are enabled on the server.

    The --set-gtid-purged option has the following effect on binary logging when the dump file is reloaded:

    • --set-gtid-purged=OFF: SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN=0; is not added to the output.

    • --set-gtid-purged=ON: SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN=0; is added to the output.
    • --set-gtid-purged=AUTO: SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN=0; is added to the output if GTIDs are enabled on the server you are backing up (that is, if AUTO evaluates to ON).

Format Options

The following options specify how to represent the entire dump file or certain kinds of data in the dump file. They also control whether certain optional information is written to the dump file.

  • --compact

    Produce more compact output. This option enables the --skip-add-drop-table, --skip-add-locks, --skip-comments, --skip-disable-keys, and --skip-set-charset options.

  • --compatible=name

    Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi, mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL mode. See раздел 6.1.8.

    This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for making dump output more compatible. For example, --compatible=oracle does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle comment syntax.

    This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With older servers, it does nothing.

  • --complete-insert, -c

    Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

  • --create-options

    Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE statements.

  • --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=..., --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...

    These options are used with the --tab option and have the same meaning as the corresponding FIELDS clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See раздел 14.2.6.

  • --hex-blob

    Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example, 'abc' becomes 0x616263). The affected data types are BINARY, VARBINARY, the BLOB types, and BIT.

  • --lines-terminated-by=...

    This option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding LINES clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. See раздел 14.2.6.

  • --quote-names, -Q

    Quote identifiers (such as database, table, and column names) within ` characters. If the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled, identifiers are quoted within " characters. This option is enabled by default. It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but this option should be given after any option such as --compatible that may enable --quote-names.

  • --result-file=file_name, -r file_name

    Direct output to the named file. The result file is created and its previous contents overwritten, even if an error occurs while generating the dump.

    This option should be used on Windows to prevent newline \n characters from being converted to \r\n carriage return/newline sequences.

  • --tab=dir_name, -T dir_name

    Produce tab-separated text-format data files. For each dumped table, mysqldump creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the CREATE TABLE statement that creates the table, and the server writes a tbl_name.txt file that contains its data. The option value is the directory in which to write the files.

    This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on the same machine as the mysqld server. Because the server creates files *.txt file in the directory that you specify, the directory must be writable by the server and the MySQL account that you use must have the FILE privilege. Because mysqldump creates *.sql in the same directory, it must be writable by your system login account.

    By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab characters between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The format can be specified explicitly using the --fields-xxx and --lines-terminated-by options.

    Column values are converted to the character set specified by the --default-character-set option.

  • --tz-utc

    This option enables TIMESTAMP columns to be dumped and reloaded between servers in different time zones. mysqldump sets its connection time zone to UTC and adds SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to the dump file. Without this option, TIMESTAMP columns are dumped and reloaded in the time zones local to the source and destination servers, which can cause the values to change if the servers are in different time zones. --tz-utc also protects against changes due to daylight saving time. --tz-utc is enabled by default. To disable it, use --skip-tz-utc.

  • --xml, -X

    Write dump output as well-formed XML.

    , 'NULL', and Empty Values: For a column named column_name, the NULL value, an empty string, and the string value 'NULL' are distinguished from one another in the output generated by this option as follows.

    Value:XML Representation:
    NULL (unknown value)

    <field name="column_name" xsi:nil="true" />

    '' (empty string)

    <field name="column_name"></field>

    'NULL' (string value)

    <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

    The output from the mysql client when run using the --xml option also follows the preceding rules. (See раздел 5.5.1.1, mysql Options.)

    XML output from mysqldump includes the XML namespace, as shown here:

    shell> mysqldump --xml -u root world City
    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <mysqldump xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
    <database name="world">
    <table_structure name="City">
    <field Field="ID" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="PRI" Extra="auto_increment" />
    <field Field="Name" Type="char(35)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
    <field Field="CountryCode" Type="char(3)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
    <field Field="District" Type="char(20)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
    <field Field="Population" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="0" Extra="" />
    <key Table="City" Non_unique="0" Key_name="PRIMARY" Seq_in_index="1" Column_name="ID"
    Collation="A" Cardinality="4079" Null="" Index_type="BTREE" Comment="" />
    <options Name="City" Engine="MyISAM" Version="10" Row_format="Fixed" Rows="4079"
    Avg_row_length="67" Data_length="273293" Max_data_length="18858823439613951"
    Index_length="43008" Data_free="0" Auto_increment="4080"
    Create_time="2007-03-31 01:47:01" Update_time="2007-03-31 01:47:02"
    Collation="latin1_swedish_ci" Create_options="" Comment="" />
    </table_structure>
    <table_data name="City">
    <row>
    <field name="ID">1</field>
    <field name="Name">Kabul</field>
    <field name="CountryCode">AFG</field>
    <field name="District">Kabol</field>
    <field name="Population">1780000</field>
    </row>
    
    ...
    
    <row>
    <field name="ID">4079</field>
    <field name="Name">Rafah</field>
    <field name="CountryCode">PSE</field>
    <field name="District">Rafah</field>
    <field name="Population">92020</field>
    </row>
    </table_data>
    </database>
    </mysqldump>
    

Filtering Options

The following options control which kinds of schema objects are written to the dump file: by category, such as triggers or events; by name, for example, choosing which databases and tables to dump; or even filtering rows from the table data using a WHERE clause.

  • --all-databases, -A

    Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the --databases option and naming all the databases on the command line.

    Prior to MySQL 8.0, the --routines and --events options for mysqldump and mysqlpump are not required to include stored routines and events when using the --all-databases option: The dump includes the mysql system database, and therefore also the mysql.proc and mysql.event tables containing stored routine and event definitions. As of MySQL 8.0, the mysql.event and mysql.proc tables are not used. Definitions for the corresponding objects are stored in data dictionary tables, but those tables are not dumped. To include stored routines and events in a dump made using --all-databases, use the --routines and --events options explicitly.

  • --databases, -B

    Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and following names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names. CREATE DATABASE and USE statements are included in the output before each new database.

    This option may be used to dump the performace_schema database, which normally is not dumped even with the --all-databases option. (Also use the --skip-lock-tables option.)

  • --events, -E

    Include Event Scheduler events for the dumped databases in the output. This option requires the EVENT privileges for those databases.

    The output generated by using --events contains CREATE EVENT statements to create the events.

  • --ignore-error=error[,error]...

    Ignore the specified errors. The option value is a comma-separated list of error numbers specifying the errors to ignore during mysqldump execution. If the --force option is also given to ignore all errors, --force takes precedence.

  • --ignore-table=db_name.tbl_name

    Do not dump the given table, which must be specified using both the database and table names. To ignore multiple tables, use this option multiple times. This option also can be used to ignore views.

  • --no-data, -d

    Do not write any table row information (that is, do not dump table contents). This is useful if you want to dump only the CREATE TABLE statement for the table (for example, to create an empty copy of the table by loading the dump file).

  • --routines, -R

    Include stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped databases in the output. This option requires the global SELECT privilege.

    The output generated by using --routines contains CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements to create the routines.

  • --tables

    Override the --databases or -B option. mysqldump regards all name arguments following the option as table names.

  • --triggers

    Include triggers for each dumped table in the output. This option is enabled by default; disable it with --skip-triggers.

    To be able to dump a table's triggers, you must have the TRIGGER privilege for the table.

    Multiple triggers are permitted. mysqldump dumps triggers in activation order so that when the dump file is reloaded, triggers are created in the same activation order. However, if a mysqldump dump file contains multiple triggers for a table that have the same trigger event and action time, an error occurs for attempts to load the dump file into an older server that does not support multiple triggers. (For a workaround, see раздел 2.10.2.1; you can convert triggers to be compatible with older servers.)

  • --where='where_condition', -w 'where_condition'

    Dump only rows selected by the given WHERE condition. Quotes around the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter.

    Examples:

    --where="user='jimf'"
    -w"userid>1"
    -w"userid<1"
    

Performance Options

The following options are the most relevant for the performance particularly of the restore operations. For large data sets, restore operation (processing the INSERT statements in the dump file) is the most time-consuming part. When it is urgent to restore data quickly, plan and test the performance of this stage in advance. For restore times measured in hours, you might prefer an alternative backup and restore solution, such as MySQL Enterprise Backup for InnoDB-only and mixed-use databases.

Performance is also affected by the transactional options, primarily for the dump operation.

  • --disable-keys, -K

    For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file faster because the indexes are created after all rows are inserted. This option is effective only for nonunique indexes of MyISAM tables.

  • --extended-insert, -e

    Write INSERT statements using multiple-row syntax that includes several VALUES lists. This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the file is reloaded.

  • --insert-ignore

    Write INSERT IGNORE statements rather than INSERT statements.

  • --opt

    This option, enabled by default, is shorthand for the combination of --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It gives a fast dump operation and produces a dump file that can be reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.

    Because the --opt option is enabled by default, you only specify its converse, the --skip-opt to turn off several default settings. See the discussion of mysqldump option groups for information about selectively enabling or disabling a subset of the options affected by --opt.

  • --quick, -q

    This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory before writing it out.

  • --skip-opt

    See the description for the --opt option.

Transactional Options

The following options trade off the performance of the dump operation, against the reliability and consistency of the exported data.

  • --add-locks

    Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is reloaded. See раздел 9.2.2.1.

  • --flush-logs, -F

    Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This option requires the RELOAD privilege. If you use this option in combination with the --all-databases option, the logs are flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when using --lock-all-tables, --master-data, or --single-transaction: In this case, the logs are flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables are locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly the same moment, you should use --flush-logs together with --lock-all-tables, --master-data, or --single-transaction.

  • --flush-privileges

    Add a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement to the dump output after dumping the mysql database. This option should be used any time the dump contains the mysql database and any other database that depends on the data in the mysql database for proper restoration.

    For upgrades to MySQL 5.7.2 or higher from older versions, do not use --flush-privileges. For upgrade instructions in this case, see раздел 2.10.1.1.

  • --lock-all-tables, -x

    Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.

  • --lock-tables, -l

    For each dumped database, lock all tables to be dumped before dumping them. The tables are locked with READ LOCAL to permit concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables. For transactional tables such as InnoDB, --single-transaction is a much better option than --lock-tables because it does not need to lock the tables at all.

    Because --lock-tables locks tables for each database separately, this option does not guarantee that the tables in the dump file are logically consistent between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped in completely different states.

    Some options, such as --opt, automatically enable --lock-tables. If you want to override this, use --skip-lock-tables at the end of the option list.

  • --no-autocommit

    Enclose the INSERT statements for each dumped table within SET autocommit = 0 and COMMIT statements.

  • --order-by-primary

    Dump each table's rows sorted by its primary key, or by its first unique index, if such an index exists. This is useful when dumping a MyISAM table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but makes the dump operation take considerably longer.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --single-transaction

    This option sets the transaction isolation mode to REPEATABLE READ and sends a START TRANSACTION SQL statement to the server before dumping data. It is useful only with transactional tables such as InnoDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the database at the time when START TRANSACTION was issued without blocking any applications.

    When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or MEMORY tables dumped while using this option may still change state.

    While a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log coordinates), no other connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE. A consistent read is not isolated from those statements, so use of them on a table to be dumped can cause the SELECT that is performed by mysqldump to retrieve the table contents to obtain incorrect contents or fail.

    The --single-transaction option and the --lock-tables option are mutually exclusive because LOCK TABLES causes any pending transactions to be committed implicitly.

    To dump large tables, combine the --single-transaction option with the --quick option.

Option Groups

  • The --opt option turns on several settings that work together to perform a fast dump operation. All of these settings are on by default, because --opt is on by default. Thus you rarely if ever specify --opt. Instead, you can turn these settings off as a group by specifying --skip-opt, the optionally re-enable certain settings by specifying the associated options later on the command line.

  • The --compact option turns off several settings that control whether optional statements and comments appear in the output. Again, you can follow this option with other options that re-enable certain settings, or turn all the settings on by using the --skip-compact form.

When you selectively enable or disable the effect of a group option, order is important because options are processed first to last. For example, --disable-keys --lock-tables --skip-opt would not have the intended effect; it is the same as --skip-opt by itself.

Examples

To make a backup of an entire database:

shell> mysqldump db_name > em>backup-file.sql
To load the dump file back into the server:
shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql
Another way to reload the dump file:
shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name
mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data from one MySQL server to another:
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name
You can dump several databases with one command:
shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql
To dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql
For InnoDB tables, mysqldump provides a way of making an online backup:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data --single-transaction > all_databases.sql
This backup acquires a global read lock on all tables (using FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as this lock has been acquired coordinates are read and the lock is released. If long updating statements are running when the FLUSH statement is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled until those statements finish. After that, the dump becomes lock free and does not disturb reads and writes on the tables. If the update statements that the MySQL server receives are short (in terms of execution time), the initial lock period should not be noticeable, even with many updates.

For point-in-time recovery (also known as roll-forward, when you need to restore an old backup and replay the changes that happened since that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see раздел 6.4.4) or at least know the binary log coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql
Or:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2
  <> all_databases.sql
The --master-data and --single-transaction options can be used simultaneously, which provides a convenient way to make an online backup suitable for use prior to point-in-time recovery if tables are stored using the InnoDB storage engine.

For more information on making backups, see раздел 8.2, Database Backup Methods, and раздел 8.3.

Restrictions

mysqldump does not dump the performance_schema or sys schema by default. To dump any of these, name them explicitly on the command line. You can also name them with the --databases option. For performance_schema, also use the --skip-lock-tables option.

mysqldump does not dump the INFORMATION_SCHEMA schema.

mysqldump includes statements to recreate the general_log and slow_query_log tables for dumps of the mysql database. Log table contents are not dumped.

If you encounter problems backing up views due to insufficient privileges, see раздел C.5 for a workaround.

5.5.5 mysqlimport Б─■ A Data Import Program

The mysqlimport client provides a command-line interface to the LOAD DATA INFILE SQL statement. Most options to mysqlimport correspond directly to clauses of LOAD DATA INFILE syntax. See раздел 14.2.6.

Invoke mysqlimport like this:

shell> mysqlimport [options] db_name textfile1 [textfile2 ...]
For each text file named on the command line, mysqlimport strips any extension from the file name and uses the result to determine the name of the table into which to import the file's contents. For example, files named patient.txt, patient.text, and patient all would be imported into a table named patient.

mysqlimport supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlimport] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.12 mysqlimport Options

FormatDescription
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--columnsThis option takes a comma-separated list of column names as its value
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--debugWrite debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--deleteEmpty the table before importing the text file
--enable-cleartext-pluginEnable cleartext authentication plugin
--fields-enclosed-byThis option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--fields-escaped-byThis option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--fields-optionally-enclosed-byThis option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--fields-terminated-byThis option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--forceContinue even if an SQL error occurs
--helpDisplay help message and exit
--hostConnect to MySQL server on given host
--ignoreSee the description for the --replace option
--ignore-linesIgnore the first N lines of the data file
--lines-terminated-byThis option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE
--localRead input files locally from the client host
--lock-tablesLock all tables for writing before processing any text files
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--low-priorityUse LOW_PRIORITY when loading the table.
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--pipeOn Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--portTCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--replaceThe --replace and --ignore options control handling of input rows that duplicate existing rows on unique key values
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--silentProduce output only when errors occur
--socketFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-caPath of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capathPath of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-certPath of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipherList of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crlPath of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpathPath of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-keyPath of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-modeSecurity state of connection to server
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--use-threadsNumber of threads for parallel file-loading
--userMySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --columns=column_list, -c column_list

    This option takes a comma-separated list of column names as its value. The order of the column names indicates how to match data file columns with table columns.

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set. See раздел 11.5.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqlimport normally reads the [client] and [mysqlimport] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqlimport also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlimport_other] groups.

  • --delete, -D

    Empty the table before importing the text file.

  • --enable-cleartext-plugin

    Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See раздел 7.5.1.4.)

  • --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=..., --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...

    These options have the same meaning as the corresponding clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See раздел 14.2.6.

  • --force, -f

    Ignore errors. For example, if a table for a text file does not exist, continue processing any remaining files. Without --force, mysqlimport exits if a table does not exist.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Import data to the MySQL server on the given host. The default host is localhost.

  • --ignore, -i

    See the description for the --replace option.

  • --ignore-lines=N

    Ignore the first N lines of the data file.

  • --lines-terminated-by=...

    This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. For example, to import Windows files that have lines terminated with carriage return/linefeed pairs, use --lines-terminated-by="\r\n". (You might have to double the backslashes, depending on the escaping conventions of your command interpreter.) See раздел 14.2.6.

  • --local, -L

    Read input files locally from the client host.

  • --lock-tables, -l

    Lock all tables for writing before processing any text files. This ensures that all tables are synchronized on the server.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --low-priority

    Use LOW_PRIORITY when loading the table. This affects only storage engines that use only table-level locking (such as MyISAM, MEMORY, and MERGE).

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlimport prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlimport does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --replace, -r

    The --replace and --ignore options control handling of input rows that duplicate existing rows on unique key values. If you specify --replace, new rows replace existing rows that have the same unique key value. If you specify --ignore, input rows that duplicate an existing row on a unique key value are skipped. If you do not specify either option, an error occurs when a duplicate key value is found, and the rest of the text file is ignored.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Note

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Produce output only when errors occur.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --use-threads=N

    Load files in parallel using N threads.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

Here is a sample session that demonstrates use of mysqlimport:

shell> mysql -e 'CREATE TABLE imptest(id INT, n VARCHAR(30))' test
shell> ed
a
100 Max Sydow
101 Count Dracula
.
w imptest.txt
32
q
shell> od -c imptest.txt
0000000   1   0   0  \t   M   a   x S   y   d   o   w  \n   1   0
0000020   1  \t   C   o   u   n   t D   r   a   c   u   l   a  \n
0000040
shell> mysqlimport --local test imptest.txt
test.imptest: Records: 2  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0
shell> mysql -e 'SELECT * FROM imptest' test
+------+---------------+
| id   | n |
+------+---------------+
|  100 | Max Sydow |
|  101 | Count Dracula |
+------+---------------+

5.5.6 mysqlpump Б─■ A Database Backup Program

The mysqlpump client utility performs logical backups, producing a set of SQL statements that can be executed to reproduce the original database object definitions and table data. It dumps one or more MySQL databases for backup or transfer to another SQL server.

mysqlpump features include:

  • Parallel processing of databases, and of objects within databases, to speed up the dump process

  • Better control over which databases and database objects (tables, stored programs, user accounts) to dump
  • Dumping of user accounts as account-management statements (CREATE USER, GRANT) rather than as inserts into the mysql system database
  • Capability of creating compressed output
  • Progress indicator (the values are estimates)
  • For dump file reloading, faster secondary index creation for InnoDB tables by adding indexes after rows are inserted

mysqlpump uses MySQL features introduced in MySQL 5.7, and thus assumes use with MySQL 5.7 or higher.

mysqlpump requires at least the SELECT privilege for dumped tables, SHOW VIEW for dumped views, TRIGGER for dumped triggers, and LOCK TABLES if the --single-transaction option is not used. The SELECT privilege on the mysql system database is required to dump user definitions. Certain options might require other privileges as noted in the option descriptions.

To reload a dump file, you must have the privileges required to execute the statements that it contains, such as the appropriate CREATE privileges for objects created by those statements.

A dump made using PowerShell on Windows with output redirection creates a file that has UTF-16 encoding:

shell> mysqlpump [options] > dump.sql
However, UTF-16 is not permitted as a connection character set (see раздел 11.1.4), so the dump file will not load correctly. To work around this issue, use the --result-file option, which creates the output in ASCII format:
shell> mysqlpump [options] --result-file=dump.sql

mysqlpump Invocation Syntax

By default, mysqlpump dumps all databases (with certain exceptions noted in mysqlpump Restrictions). To specify this behavior explicitly, use the --all-databases option:

shell> mysqlpump --all-databases
To dump a single database, or certain tables within that database, name the database on the command line, optionally followed by table names:
shell> mysqlpump db_name
shell> mysqlpump db_name tbl_name1 tbl_name2 ...
To treat all name arguments as database names, use the --databases option:
shell> mysqlpump --databases db_name1 db_name2 ...
By default, mysqlpump does not dump user account definitions, even if you dump the mysql system database that contains the grant tables. To dump grant table contents as logical definitions in the form of CREATE USER and GRANT statements, use the --users option and suppress all database dumping:
shell> mysqlpump --exclude-databases=% --users
In the preceding command, % is a wildcard that matches all database names for the --exclude-databases option.

mysqlpump supports several options for including or excluding databases, tables, stored programs, and user definitions. See mysqlpump Object Selection.

To reload a dump file, execute the statements that it contains. For example, use the mysql client:

shell> mysqlpump [options] > dump.sql
shell> mysql < dump.sql
The following discussion provides additional mysqlpump usage examples.

To see a list of the options mysqlpump supports, issue the command mysqlpump --help.

mysqlpump Option Summary

mysqlpump supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlpump] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.13 mysqlpump Options

FormatDescription
--add-drop-databaseAdd DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement
--add-drop-tableAdd DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement
--add-drop-userAdd DROP USER statement before each CREATE USER statement
--add-locksSurround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES statements
--all-databasesDump all databases
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed
--complete-insertUse complete INSERT statements that include column names
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--compress-outputOutput compression algorithm
--databasesInterpret all name arguments as database names
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--default-parallelismDefault number of threads for parallel processing
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--defer-table-indexesFor reloading, defer index creation until after loading table rows
--events Dump events from dumped databases
--exclude-databasesDatabases to exclude from dump
--exclude-eventsEvents to exclude from dump
--exclude-routinesRoutines to exclude from dump
--exclude-tablesTables to exclude from dump
--exclude-triggersTriggers to exclude from dump
--exclude-usersUsers to exclude from dump
--extended-insertUse multiple-row INSERT syntax
--help Display help message and exit
--hex-blobDump binary columns using hexadecimal notation
--host Host to connect to (IP address or hostname)
--include-databasesDatabases to include in dump
--include-eventsEvents to include in dump
--include-routinesRoutines to include in dump
--include-tablesTables to include in dump
--include-triggersTriggers to include in dump
--include-usersUsers to include in dump
--insert-ignoreWrite INSERT IGNORE rather than INSERT statements
--log-error-fileAppend warnings and errors to named file
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--max-allowed-packetMaximum packet length to send to or receive from server
--net-buffer-lengthBuffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication
--no-create-dbDo not write CREATE DATABASE statements
--no-create-infoDo not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped table
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--parallel-schemasSpecify schema-processing parallelism
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--replace Write REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements
--result-fileDirect output to a given file
--routinesDump stored routines (procedures and functions) from dumped databases
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--set-charsetAdd SET NAMES default_character_set to output
--single-transactionDump tables within single transaction
--skip-definerOmit DEFINER and SQL SECURITY clauses from view and stored program CREATE statements
--skip-dump-rowsDo not dump table rows
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capath Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-cert Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crl Path of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpath Path of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-key Path of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-mode Security state of connection to server
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--triggersDump triggers for each dumped table
--tz-utc Add SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to dump file
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--users Dump user accounts
--version Display version information and exit
--watch-progressDisplay progress indicator

mysqlpump Option Descriptions

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --add-drop-database

    Write a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement.

  • --add-drop-table

    Write a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

  • --add-drop-user

    Write a DROP USER statement before each CREATE USER statement.

  • --add-locks

    Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is reloaded. See раздел 9.2.2.1.

    This option does not work with parallelism because INSERT statements from different tables can be interleaved and UNLOCK TABLES following the end of the inserts for one table could release locks on tables for which inserts remain.

    --add-locks and --single-transaction are mutually exclusive.

  • --all-databases , -A

    Dump all databases (with certain exceptions noted in mysqlpump Restrictions). This is the default behavior if no other is specified explicitly.

    --all-databases and --databases are mutually exclusive.

    Prior to MySQL 8.0, the --routines and --events options for mysqldump and mysqlpump are not required to include stored routines and events when using the --all-databases option: The dump includes the mysql system database, and therefore also the mysql.proc and mysql.event tables containing stored routine and event definitions. As of MySQL 8.0, the mysql.event and mysql.proc tables are not used. Definitions for the corresponding objects are stored in data dictionary tables, but those tables are not dumped. To include stored routines and events in a dump made using --all-databases, use the --routines and --events options explicitly.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --character-sets-dir=path

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --complete-insert

    Write complete INSERT statements that include column names.

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --compress-output=algorithm

    By default, mysqlpump does not compress output. This option specifies output compression using the specified algorithm. Permitted algorithms are LZ4 and ZLIB.

    To uncompress compressed output, you must have an appropriate utility. If the system commands lz4 and openssl zlib are not available, MySQL distributions include lz4_decompress and zlib_decompress utilities that can be used to decompress mysqlpump output that was compressed using the --compress-output=LZ4 and --compress-output=ZLIB options. For more information, see раздел 5.8.1, lz4_decompress Б─■ Decompress mysqlpump LZ4-Compressed Output, and раздел 5.8.5.

  • --databases , -B

    Normally, mysqlpump treats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and any following names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names. CREATE DATABASE statements are included in the output before each new database.

    --all-databases and --databases are mutually exclusive.

  • --debug[= debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysqlpump.trace.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info , -T

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-auth= plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set. See раздел 11.5. If no character set is specified, mysqlpump uses utf8.

  • --default-parallelism=N

    The default number of threads for each parallel processing queue. The default is 2.

    The --parallel-schemas option also affects parallelism and can be used to override the default number of threads. For more information, see mysqlpump Parallel Processing.

    With --default-parallelism=0 and no --parallel-schemas options, mysqlpump runs as a single-threaded process and creates no queues.

    With parallelism enabled, it is possible for output from different databases to be interleaved.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file= file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqlpump normally reads the [client] and [mysqlpump] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqlpump also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlpump_other] groups.

  • --defer-table-indexes

    In the dump output, defer index creation for each table until after its rows have been loaded. This works for all storage engines, but for InnoDB applies only for secondary indexes.

    This option is enabled by default; use --skip-defer-table-indexes to disable it.

  • --events

    Include Event Scheduler events for the dumped databases in the output. Event dumping requires the EVENT privileges for those databases.

    The output generated by using --events contains CREATE EVENT statements to create the events.

    This option is enabled by default; use --skip-events to disable it.

  • --exclude-databases=db_list

    Do not dump the databases in db_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more database names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --exclude-events=event_list

    Do not dump the databases in event_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more event names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --exclude-routines=routine_list

    Do not dump the events in routine_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more routine (stored procedure or function) names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --exclude-tables=table_list

    Do not dump the tables in table_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more table names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --exclude-triggers=trigger_list

    Do not dump the triggers in trigger_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more trigger names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --exclude-users=user_list

    Do not dump the user accounts in user_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more account names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --extended-insert=N

    Write INSERT statements using multiple-row syntax that includes several VALUES lists. This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the file is reloaded.

    The option value indicates the number of rows to include in each INSERT statement. The default is 250. A value of 1 produces one INSERT statement per table row.

  • --hex-blob

    Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example, 'abc' becomes 0x616263). The affected data types are BINARY, VARBINARY, the BLOB types, and BIT.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --include-databases=db_list

    Dump the databases in db_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more database names. The dump includes all objects in the named databases. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --include-events=event_list

    Dump the events in event_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more event names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --include-routines=routine_list

    Dump the routines in routine_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more routine (stored procedure or function) names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --include-tables=table_list

    Dump the tables in table_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more table names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --include-triggers=trigger_list

    Dump the triggers in trigger_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more trigger names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --include-users=user_list

    Dump the user accounts in user_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more user names. Multiple instances of this option are additive. For more information, see mysqlpump Object Selection.

  • --insert-ignore

    Write INSERT IGNORE statements rather than INSERT statements.

  • --log-error-file=file_name

    Log warnings and errors by appending them to the named file. If this option is not given, mysqlpump writes warnings and errors to the standard error output.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --max-allowed-packet=N

    The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default is 24MB, the maximum is 1GB.

  • --net-buffer-length=N

    The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When creating multiple-row INSERT statements (as with the --extended-insert option), mysqlpump creates rows up to N bytes long. If you use this option to increase the value, ensure that the MySQL server net_buffer_length system variable has a value at least this large.

  • --no-create-db

    Suppress any CREATE DATABASE statements that might otherwise be included in the output.

  • --no-create-info, -t

    Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that create each dumped table.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --parallel-schemas=[N:]db_list

    Create a queue for processing the databases in db_list, which is a comma-separated list of one or more database names. If N is given, the queue uses N threads. If N is not given, the --default-parallelism option determines the number of queue threads.

    Multiple instances of this option create multiple queues. mysqlpump also creates a default queue to use for databases not named in any --parallel-schemas option, and for dumping user definitions if command options select them. For more information, see mysqlpump Parallel Processing.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlpump prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlpump does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --replace

    Write REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements.

  • --result-file=file_name

    Direct output to the named file. The result file is created and its previous contents overwritten, even if an error occurs while generating the dump.

    This option should be used on Windows to prevent newline \n characters from being converted to \r\n carriage return/newline sequences.

  • --routines

    Include stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped databases in the output. This option requires the global SELECT privilege.

    The output generated by using --routines contains CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements to create the routines.

    This option is enabled by default; use --skip-routines to disable it.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

  • --set-charset

    Write SET NAMES default_character_set to the output.

    This option is enabled by default. To disable it and suppress the SET NAMES statement, use --skip-set-charset.

  • --single-transaction

    This option sets the transaction isolation mode to REPEATABLE READ and sends a START TRANSACTION SQL statement to the server before dumping data. It is useful only with transactional tables such as InnoDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the database at the time when START TRANSACTION was issued without blocking any applications.

    When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or MEMORY tables dumped while using this option may still change state.

    While a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log coordinates), no other connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE. A consistent read is not isolated from those statements, so use of them on a table to be dumped can cause the SELECT that is performed by mysqlpump to retrieve the table contents to obtain incorrect contents or fail.

    --add-locks and --single-transaction are mutually exclusive.

  • --skip-definer

    Omit DEFINER and SQL SECURITY clauses from the CREATE statements for views and stored programs. The dump file, when reloaded, creates objects that use the default DEFINER and SQL SECURITY values. See раздел 21.6.

  • --skip-dump-rows, -d

    Do not dump table rows.

  • --socket={file_name|pipe_name} , -S {file_name|pipe_name }

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --triggers

    Include triggers for each dumped table in the output.

    This option is enabled by default; use --skip-triggers to disable it.

  • --tz-utc

    This option enables TIMESTAMP columns to be dumped and reloaded between servers in different time zones. mysqlpump sets its connection time zone to UTC and adds SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to the dump file. Without this option, TIMESTAMP columns are dumped and reloaded in the time zones local to the source and destination servers, which can cause the values to change if the servers are in different time zones. --tz-utc also protects against changes due to daylight saving time.

    This option is enabled by default; use --skip-tz-utc to disable it.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --users

    Dump user accounts as logical definitions in the form of CREATE USER and GRANT statements.

    User definitions are stored in the grant tables in the mysql system database. By default, mysqlpump does not include the grant tables in mysql database dumps. To dump the contents of the grant tables as logical definitions, use the --users option and suppress all database dumping:

    shell> mysqlpump --exclude-databases=% --users
    
  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

  • --watch-progress

    Periodically display a progress indicator that provides information about the completed and total number of tables, rows, and other objects.

    This option is enabled by default; use --skip-watch-progress to disable it.

mysqlpump Object Selection

mysqlpump has a set of inclusion and exclusion options that enable filtering of several object types and provide flexible control over which objects to dump:

Any inclusion or exclusion option may be given multiple times. The effect is additive. Order of these options does not matter.

The value of each inclusion and exclusion option is a comma-separated list of names of the appropriate object type. For example:

--exclude-databases=test,world
--include-tables=customer,invoice
Wildcard characters are permitted in the object names:

  • % matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

  • _ matches any single character.

For example, --include-tables=t%,__tmp matches all table names that begin with t and all five-character table names that end with tmp.

For users, a name specified without a host part is interpreted with an implied host of %. For example, u1 and u1@% are equivalent. This is the same equivalence that applies in MySQL generally (see раздел 7.2.3, Specifying Account Names).

Inclusion and exclusion options interact as follows:

  • By default, with no inclusion or exclusion options, mysqlpump dumps all databases (with certain exceptions noted in mysqlpump Restrictions).

  • If inclusion options are given in the absence of exclusion options, only the objects named as included are dumped.
  • If exclusion options are given in the absence of inclusion options, all objects are dumped except those named as excluded.
  • If inclusion and exclusion options are given, all objects named as excluded and not named as included are not dumped. All other objects are dumped.

If multiple databases are being dumped, it is possible to name tables, triggers, and routines in a specific database by qualifying the object names with the database name. The following command dumps databases db1 and db2, but excludes tables db1.t1 and db2.t2:

shell> mysqlpump --include-databases=db1,db2 --exclude-tables=db1.t1,db2.t2

The following options provide alternative ways to specify which databases to dump:

mysqlpump Parallel Processing

mysqlpump can use parallelism to achieve concurrent processing. You can select concurrency between databases (to dump multiple databases simultaneously) and within databases (to dump multiple objects from a given database simultaneously).

By default, mysqlpump sets up one queue with two threads. You can create additional queues and control the number of threads assigned to each one, including the default queue:

  • --default-parallelism=N specifies the default number of threads used for each queue. In the absence of this option, N is 2.

    The default queue always uses the default number of threads. Additional queues use the default number of threads unless you specify otherwise.

  • --parallel-schemas=[N:]db_list sets up a processing queue for dumping the databases named in db_list and optionally specifies how many threads the queue uses. db_list is a comma-separated list of database names. If the option argument begins with N:, the queue uses N threads. Otherwise, the --default-parallelism option determines the number of queue threads.

    Multiple instances of the --parallel-schemas option create multiple queues.

    Names in the database list are permitted to contain the same % and _ wildcard characters supported for filtering options (see mysqlpump Object Selection).

mysqlpump uses the default queue for processing any databases not named explicitly with a --parallel-schemas option, and for dumping user definitions if command options select them.

In general, with multiple queues, mysqlpump uses parallelism between the sets of databases processed by the queues, to dump multiple databases simultaneously. For a queue that uses multiple threads, mysqlpump uses parallelism within databases, to dump multiple objects from a given database simultaneously. Exceptions can occur; for example, mysqlpump may block queues while it obtains from the server lists of objects in databases.

With parallelism enabled, it is possible for output from different databases to be interleaved. For example, INSERT statements from multiple tables dumped in parallel can be interleaved; the statements are not written in any particular order. This does not affect reloading because output statements qualify object names with database names or are preceded by USE statements as required.

The granularity for parallelism is a single database object. For example, a single table cannot be dumped in parallel using multiple threads.

Examples:

shell> mysqlpump --parallel-schemas=db1,db2 --parallel-schemas=db3
mysqlpump sets up a queue to process db1 and db2, another queue to process db3, and a default queue to process all other databases. All queues use two threads.
shell> mysqlpump --parallel-schemas=db1,db2 --parallel-schemas=db3
 <--default-parallelism=4
This is the same as the previous example except that all queues use four threads.
shell> mysqlpump --parallel-schemas=5:db1,db2 --parallel-schemas=3:db3
The queue for db1 and db2 uses five threads, the queue for db3 uses three threads, and the default queue uses the default of two threads.

As a special case, with --default-parallelism=0 and no --parallel-schemas options, mysqlpump runs as a single-threaded process and creates no queues.

mysqlpump Restrictions

mysqlpump does not dump the performance_schema, ndbinfo, or sys schema by default. To dump any of these, name them explicitly on the command line. You can also name them with the --databases or --include-databases option.

mysqlpump does not dump the INFORMATION_SCHEMA schema.

mysqlpump dumps user accounts in logical form using CREATE USER and GRANT statements (for example, when you use the --include-users or --users option). For this reason, dumps of the mysql system database do not by default include the grant tables that contain user definitions: user, db, tables_priv, columns_priv, procs_priv, or proxies_priv. To dump any of the grant tables, name the mysql database followed by the table names:

shell> mysqlpump mysql user db ...

5.5.7 mysqlshow Б─■ Display Database, Table, and Column Information

The mysqlshow client can be used to quickly see which databases exist, their tables, or a table's columns or indexes.

mysqlshow provides a command-line interface to several SQL SHOW statements. See раздел 14.7.5, SHOW Syntax. The same information can be obtained by using those statements directly. For example, you can issue them from the mysql client program.

Invoke mysqlshow like this:

shell> mysqlshow [options] [db_name [tbl_name [col_name]]]
  • If no database is given, a list of database names is shown.

  • If no table is given, all matching tables in the database are shown.
  • If no column is given, all matching columns and column types in the table are shown.

The output displays only the names of those databases, tables, or columns for which you have some privileges.

If the last argument contains shell or SQL wildcard characters (*, ?, %, or _), only those names that are matched by the wildcard are shown. If a database name contains any underscores, those should be escaped with a backslash (some Unix shells require two) to get a list of the proper tables or columns. * and ? characters are converted into SQL % and _ wildcard characters. This might cause some confusion when you try to display the columns for a table with a _ in the name, because in this case, mysqlshow shows you only the table names that match the pattern. This is easily fixed by adding an extra % last on the command line as a separate argument.

mysqlshow supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlshow] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.14 mysqlshow Options

FormatDescription
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--count Show the number of rows per table
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--default-character-setSpecify default character set
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--enable-cleartext-pluginEnable cleartext authentication plugin
--help Display help message and exit
--host Connect to MySQL server on given host
--keys Show table indexes
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--pipe On Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--show-table-typeShow a column indicating the table type
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capath Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-cert Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crl Path of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpath Path of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-key Path of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-mode Security state of connection to server
--status Display extra information about each table
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --count

    Show the number of rows per table. This can be slow for non-MyISAM tables.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set. See раздел 11.5.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqlshow normally reads the [client] and [mysqlshow] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqlshow also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlshow_other] groups.

  • --enable-cleartext-plugin

    Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See раздел 7.5.1.4.)

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --keys, -k

    Show table indexes.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlshow prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlshow does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port= port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --show-table-type, -t

    Show a column indicating the table type, as in SHOW FULL TABLES. The type is BASE TABLE or VIEW.

  • --socket= path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --status, -i

    Display extra information about each table.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does. This option can be used multiple times to increase the amount of information.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.5.8 mysqlslap Б─■ Load Emulation Client

mysqlslap is a diagnostic program designed to emulate client load for a MySQL server and to report the timing of each stage. It works as if multiple clients are accessing the server.

Invoke mysqlslap like this:

shell> mysqlslap [options]
Some options such as --create or --query enable you to specify a string containing an SQL statement or a file containing statements. If you specify a file, by default it must contain one statement per line. (That is, the implicit statement delimiter is the newline character.) Use the --delimiter option to specify a different delimiter, which enables you to specify statements that span multiple lines or place multiple statements on a single line. You cannot include comments in a file; mysqlslap does not understand them.

mysqlslap runs in three stages:

  1. Create schema, table, and optionally any stored programs or data to use for the test. This stage uses a single client connection.

  2. Run the load test. This stage can use many client connections.
  3. Clean up (disconnect, drop table if specified). This stage uses a single client connection.

Examples:

Supply your own create and query SQL statements, with 50 clients querying and 200 selects for each (enter the command on a single line):

mysqlslap --delimiter=";"
          --create="CREATE TABLE a (b int);INSERT INTO a VALUES (23)"
          --query="SELECT * FROM a" --concurrency=50 --iterations=200
Let mysqlslap build the query SQL statement with a table of two INT columns and three VARCHAR columns. Use five clients querying 20 times each. Do not create the table or insert the data (that is, use the previous test's schema and data):
mysqlslap --concurrency=5 --iterations=20
          --number-int-cols=2 --number-char-cols=3 --auto-generate-sql
Tell the program to load the create, insert, and query SQL statements from the specified files, where the create.sql file has multiple table creation statements delimited by ';' and multiple insert statements delimited by ';'. The --query file will have multiple queries delimited by ';'. Run all the load statements, then run all the queries in the query file with five clients (five times each):
mysqlslap --concurrency=5
          --iterations=5 --query=query.sql --create=create.sql
          --delimiter=";"
mysqlslap supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlslap] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.15 mysqlslap Options

FormatDescription
--auto-generate-sqlGenerate SQL statements automatically when they are not supplied in files or using command options
--auto-generate-sql-add-autoincrementAdd AUTO_INCREMENT column to automatically generated tables
--auto-generate-sql-execute-numberSpecify how many queries to generate automatically
--auto-generate-sql-guid-primaryAdd a GUID-based primary key to automatically generated tables
--auto-generate-sql-load-typeSpecify the test load type
--auto-generate-sql-secondary-indexesSpecify how many secondary indexes to add to automatically generated tables
--auto-generate-sql-unique-query-numberHow many different queries to generate for automatic tests.
--auto-generate-sql-unique-write-numberHow many different queries to generate for --auto-generate-sql-write-number
--auto-generate-sql-write-numberHow many row inserts to perform on each thread
--commit How many statements to execute before committing.
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server
--concurrencyNumber of clients to simulate when issuing the SELECT statement
--create File or string containing the statement to use for creating the table
--create-schemaSchema in which to run the tests
--csv Generate output in comma-separated values format
--debug Write debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--delimiterDelimiter to use in SQL statements
--detach Detach (close and reopen) each connection after each N statements
--enable-cleartext-pluginEnable cleartext authentication plugin
--engine Storage engine to use for creating the table
--help Display help message and exit
--host Connect to MySQL server on given host
--iterationsNumber of times to run the tests
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--no-dropDo not drop any schema created during the test run
--number-char-colsNumber of VARCHAR columns to use if --auto-generate-sql is specified
--number-int-colsNumber of INT columns to use if --auto-generate-sql is specified
--number-of-queriesLimit each client to approximately this number of queries
--only-printDo not connect to databases. mysqlslap only prints what it would have done
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--pipe On Windows, connect to server using named pipe
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--post-queryFile or string containing the statement to execute after the tests have completed
--post-systemString to execute using system() after the tests have completed
--pre-queryFile or string containing the statement to execute before running the tests
--pre-systemString to execute using system() before running the tests
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--query File or string containing the SELECT statement to use for retrieving data
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--silent Silent mode
--socketFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--sql-modeSet SQL mode for client session
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capath Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-cert Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipher List of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crl Path of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpath Path of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-keyPath of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-modeSecurity state of connection to server
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--userMySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --auto-generate-sql, -a

    Generate SQL statements automatically when they are not supplied in files or using command options.

  • --auto-generate-sql-add-autoincrement

    Add an AUTO_INCREMENT column to automatically generated tables.

  • --auto-generate-sql-execute-number=N

    Specify how many queries to generate automatically.

  • --auto-generate-sql-guid-primary

    Add a GUID-based primary key to automatically generated tables.

  • --auto-generate-sql-load-type=type

    Specify the test load type. The permissible values are read (scan tables), write (insert into tables), key (read primary keys), update (update primary keys), or mixed (half inserts, half scanning selects). The default is mixed.

  • --auto-generate-sql-secondary-indexes=N

    Specify how many secondary indexes to add to automatically generated tables. By default, none are added.

  • --auto-generate-sql-unique-query-number=N

    How many different queries to generate for automatic tests. For example, if you run a key test that performs 1000 selects, you can use this option with a value of 1000 to run 1000 unique queries, or with a value of 50 to perform 50 different selects. The default is 10.

  • --auto-generate-sql-unique-write-number=N

    How many different queries to generate for --auto-generate-sql-write-number. The default is 10.

  • --auto-generate-sql-write-number=N

    How many row inserts to perform. The default is 100.

  • --commit=N

    How many statements to execute before committing. The default is 0 (no commits are done).

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --concurrency=N, -c N

    The number of parallel clients to simulate.

  • --create=value

    The file or string containing the statement to use for creating the table.

  • --create-schema=value

    The schema in which to run the tests.

    If the --auto-generate-sql option is also given, mysqlslap drops the schema at the end of the test run. To avoid this, use the --no-drop option as well.

  • --csv[=file_name]

    Generate output in comma-separated values format. The output goes to the named file, or to the standard output if no file is given.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysqlslap.trace.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info, -T

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqlslap normally reads the [client] and [mysqlslap] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqlslap also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlslap_other] groups.

  • --delimiter=str, -F str

    The delimiter to use in SQL statements supplied in files or using command options.

  • --detach=N

    Detach (close and reopen) each connection after each N statements. The default is 0 (connections are not detached).

  • --enable-cleartext-plugin

    Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See раздел 7.5.1.4.)

  • --engine= engine_name, -e engine_name

    The storage engine to use for creating tables.

  • --host= host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --iterations= N, -i N

    The number of times to run the tests.

  • --login-path= name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --no-drop

    Prevent mysqlslap from dropping any schema it creates during the test run.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --number-char-cols=N, -x N

    The number of VARCHAR columns to use if --auto-generate-sql is specified.

  • --number-int-cols=N, -y N

    The number of INT columns to use if --auto-generate-sql is specified.

  • --number-of-queries=N

    Limit each client to approximately this many queries. Query counting takes into account the statement delimiter. For example, if you invoke mysqlslap as follows, the ; delimiter is recognized so that each instance of the query string counts as two queries. As a result, 5 rows (not 10) are inserted.

    shell> mysqlslap --delimiter=";" --number-of-queries=10
                        --query="use test;insert into t values(null)"
    
  • --only-print

    Do not connect to databases. mysqlslap only prints what it would have done.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlslap prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlslap does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --post-query=value

    The file or string containing the statement to execute after the tests have completed. This execution is not counted for timing purposes.

  • --post-system=str

    The string to execute using system() after the tests have completed. This execution is not counted for timing purposes.

  • --pre-query=value

    The file or string containing the statement to execute before running the tests. This execution is not counted for timing purposes.

  • --pre-system=str

    The string to execute using system() before running the tests. This execution is not counted for timing purposes.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --query=value, -q value

    The file or string containing the SELECT statement to use for retrieving data.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. This option applies only if the server supports shared-memory connections.

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. No output.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --sql-mode= mode

    Set the SQL mode for the client session.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --tls-version= protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does. This option can be used multiple times to increase the amount of information.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.6 MySQL Administrative and Utility Programs

This раздел describes administrative programs and programs that perform miscellaneous utility operations.

5.6.1 ibd2sdi Б─■ InnoDB Tablespace SDI Extraction Utility

ibd2sdi is an InnoDB utility for extracting serialized dictionary information (SDI) from InnoDB tablespace files.

SDI data is not present in persistent InnoDB tablespaces in the MySQL 8.0.0 release. The ibd2sdi utility is reserved for future use.

5.6.2 innochecksum Б─■ Offline InnoDB File Checksum Utility

innochecksum prints checksums for InnoDB files. This tool reads an InnoDB tablespace file, calculates the checksum for each page, compares the calculated checksum to the stored checksum, and reports mismatches, which indicate damaged pages. It was originally developed to speed up verifying the integrity of tablespace files after power outages but can also be used after file copies. Because checksum mismatches will cause InnoDB to deliberately shut down a running server, it can be preferable to use this tool rather than waiting for a server in production usage to encounter the damaged pages.

innochecksum cannot be used on tablespace files that the server already has open. For such files, you should use CHECK TABLE to check tables within the tablespace. Attempting to run innochecksum on a tablespace that the server already has open will result in an Unable to lock file error.

If checksum mismatches are found, you would normally restore the tablespace from backup or start the server and attempt to use mysqldump to make a backup of the tables within the tablespace.

Invoke innochecksum like this:

shell> innochecksum [options] file_name

innochecksum Options

innochecksum supports the following options. For options that refer to page numbers, the numbers are zero-based.

  • --help, -?

    Displays command line help. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --help
    
  • --info, -I

    Synonym for --help. Displays command line help. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --info
    
  • --version, -V

    Displays version information. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --version
    
  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode; prints a progress indicator to the log file every five seconds. In order for the progress indicator to be printed, the log file must be specified using the --log option. To turn on verbose mode, run:

    shell> innochecksum --verbose
    
    To turn off verbose mode, run:
    shell> innochecksum --verbose=FALSE
    
    The --verbose option and --log option can be specified at the same time. For example:
    shell> innochecksum --verbose --log=/var/lib/mysql/test/logtest.txt
    
    To locate the progress indicator information in the log file, you can perform the following search:
    shell> cat ./logtest.txt | grep -i "okay"
    
    The progress indicator information in the log file appears similar to the following:
    page 1663 okay: 2.863% done
    page 8447 okay: 14.537% done
    page 13695 okay: 23.568% done
    page 18815 okay: 32.379% done
    page 23039 okay: 39.648% done
    page 28351 okay: 48.789% done
    page 33023 okay: 56.828% done
    page 37951 okay: 65.308% done
    page 44095 okay: 75.881% done
    page 49407 okay: 85.022% done
    page 54463 okay: 93.722% done
    ...
    
  • --count, -c

    Print a count of the number of pages in the file and exit. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --count ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • --start-page=num, -s num

    Start at this page number. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --start-page=600 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    or:
    shell> innochecksum -s 600 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • --end-page=num, -e num

    End at this page number. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --end-page=700 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    or:
    shell> innochecksum --p 700 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • --page= num, -p num

    Check only this page number. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --page=701 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • --strict-check, -C

    Specify a strict checksum algorithm. Options include innodb, crc32, and none.

    In this example, the innodb checksum algorithm is specified:

    shell> innochecksum --strict-check=innodb ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    In this example, the crc32 checksum algorithm is specified:
    shell> innochecksum -C crc32 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    The following conditions apply:

    • If you do not specify the --strict-check option, innochecksum validates against innodb, crc32 and none.

    • If you specify the none option, only checksums generated by none are allowed.
    • If you specify the innodb option, only checksums generated by innodb are allowed.
    • If you specify the crc32 option, only checksums generated by crc32 are allowed.

  • --no-check, -n

    Ignore the checksum verification when rewriting a checksum. This option may only be used with the innochecksum --write option. If the --write option is not specified, innochecksum will terminate.

    In this example, an innodb checksum is rewritten to replace an invalid checksum:

    shell> innochecksum --no-check --write innodb ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • --allow-mismatches, -a

    The maximum number of checksum mismatches allowed before innochecksum terminates. The default setting is 0. If --allow-mismatches=N, where N>=0, N mismatches are permitted and innochecksum terminates at N+1. When --allow-mismatches is set to 0, innochecksum terminates on the first checksum mismatch.

    In this example, an existing innodb checksum is rewritten to set --allow-mismatches to 1.

    shell> innochecksum --allow-mismatches=1 --write innodb ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    With --allow-mismatches set to 1, if there is a mismatch at page 600 and another at page 700 on a file with 1000 pages, the checksum is updated for pages 0-599 and 601-699. Because --allow-mismatches is set to 1, the checksum tolerates the first mismatch and terminates on the second mismatch, leaving page 600 and pages 700-999 unchanged.
  • --write=name, -w num

    Rewrite a checksum. When rewriting an invalid checksum, the --no-check option must be used together with the --write option. The --no-check option tells innochecksum to ignore verification of the invalid checksum. You do not have to specify the --no-check option if the current checksum is valid.

    An algorithm must be specified when using the --write option. Possible values for the --write option are:

    • innodb: A checksum calculated in software, using the original algorithm from InnoDB.

    • crc32: A checksum calculated using the crc32 algorithm, possibly done with a hardware assist.
    • none: A constant number.

    The --write option rewrites entire pages to disk. If the new checksum is identical to the existing checksum, the new checksum is not written to disk in order to minimize I/O.

    innochecksum obtains an exclusive lock when the --write option is used.

    In this example, a crc32 checksum is written for tab1.ibd:

    shell> innochecksum -w crc32 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    In this example, a crc32 checksum is rewritten to replace an invalid crc32 checksum:
    shell> innochecksum --no-check --write crc32 ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • --page-type-summary, -S

    Display a count of each page type in a tablespace. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --page-type-summary ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    Sample output for --page-type-summary:
    File::../data/test/tab1.ibd
    ================PAGE TYPE SUMMARY==============
    #PAGE_COUNT PAGE_TYPE
    ===============================================
     2 Index page
     0 Undo log page
     1 Inode page
     0 Insert buffer free list page
     2 Freshly allocated page
     1 Insert buffer bitmap
     0 System page
     0 Transaction system page
     1 File Space Header
     0 Extent descriptor page
     0 BLOB page
     0 Compressed BLOB page
     0 Other type of page
    ===============================================
    Additional information:
    Undo page type: 0 insert, 0 update, 0 other
    Undo page state: 0 active, 0 cached, 0 to_free, 0 to_purge, 0 prepared, 0 other
    
  • --page-type-dump, -D

    Dump the page type information for each page in a tablespace to stderr or stdout. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --page-type-dump=/tmp/a.txt ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • --log, -l

    Log output for the innochecksum tool. A log file name must be provided. Log output contains checksum values for each tablespace page. For uncompressed tables, LSN values are also provided. The --log replaces the --debug option, which was available in earlier releases. Example usage:

    shell> innochecksum --log=/tmp/log.txt ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
    or:
    shell> innochecksum -l /tmp/log.txt ../data/test/tab1.ibd
    
  • - option.

    Specify the - option to read from standard input. If the - option is missing when read from standard in is expected, innochecksum will output innochecksum usage information indicating that the - option was omitted. Example usages:

    shell> cat t1.ibd | innochecksum -
    
    In this example, innochecksum writes the crc32 checksum algorithm to a.ibd without changing the original t1.ibd file.
    shell> cat t1.ibd | innochecksum --write=crc32 - > a.ibd
    

Running innochecksum on Multiple User-defined Tablespace Files

The following examples demonstrate how to run innochecksum on multiple user-defined tablespace files (.ibd files).

Run innochecksum for all tablespace (.ibd) files in the test database:

shell> innochecksum ./data/test/*.ibd
Run innochecksum for all tablespace files (.ibd files) that have a file name starting with t:
shell> innochecksum ./data/test/t*.ibd
Run innochecksum for all tablespace files (.ibd files) in the data directory:
shell> innochecksum ./data/*/*.ibd

Running innochecksum on multiple user-defined tablespace files is not supported on Windows operating systems, as Windows shells such as cmd.exe do not support glob pattern expansion. On Windows systems, innochecksum must be run separately for each user-defined tablespace file. For example:

cmd> innochecksum.exe t1.ibd
cmd> innochecksum.exe t2.ibd
cmd> innochecksum.exe t3.ibd

Running innochecksum on Multiple System Tablespace Files

By default, there is only one InnoDB system tablespace file (ibdata1) but multiple files for the system tablespace can be defined using the innodb_data_file_path option. In the following example, three files for the system tablespace are defined using the innodb_data_file_path option: ibdata1, ibdata2, and ibdata3.

shell> ./bin/mysqld --no-defaults --innodb-data-file-path="ibdata1:10M;ibdata2:10M;ibdata3:10M:autoextend"
The three files (ibdata1, ibdata2, and ibdata3) form one logical system tablespace. To run innochecksum on multiple files that form one logical system tablespace, innochecksum requires the - option to read tablespace files in from standard input, which is equivalent to concatenating multiple files to create one single file. For the example provided above, the following innochecksum command would be used:
  shell> cat ibdata* | innochecksum -
Refer to the innochecksum options information for more information about the - option.

Running innochecksum on multiple files in the same tablespace is not supported on Windows operating systems, as Windows shells such as cmd.exe do not support glob pattern expansion. On Windows systems, innochecksum must be run separately for each system tablespace file. For example:

cmd> innochecksum.exe ibdata1
cmd> innochecksum.exe ibdata2
cmd> innochecksum.exe ibdata3

5.6.3 myisam_ftdump Б─■ Display Full-Text Index information

myisam_ftdump displays information about FULLTEXT indexes in MyISAM tables. It reads the MyISAM index file directly, so it must be run on the server host where the table is located. Before using myisam_ftdump, be sure to issue a FLUSH TABLES statement first if the server is running.

myisam_ftdump scans and dumps the entire index, which is not particularly fast. On the other hand, the distribution of words changes infrequently, so it need not be run often.

Invoke myisam_ftdump like this:

shell> myisam_ftdump [options] tbl_name index_num
The tbl_name argument should be the name of a MyISAM table. You can also specify a table by naming its index file (the file with the .MYI suffix). If you do not invoke myisam_ftdump in the directory where the table files are located, the table or index file name must be preceded by the path name to the table's database directory. Index numbers begin with 0.

Example: Suppose that the test database contains a table named mytexttable that has the following definition:

CREATE TABLE mytexttable (id INT NOT NULL, txt TEXT NOT NULL,
                          PRIMARY KEY (id), FULLTEXT (txt)) ENGINE=MyISAM;
The index on id is index 0 and the FULLTEXT index on txt is index 1. If your working directory is the test database directory, invoke myisam_ftdump as follows:
shell> myisam_ftdump mytexttable 1
If the path name to the test database directory is /usr/local/mysql/data/test, you can also specify the table name argument using that path name. This is useful if you do not invoke myisam_ftdump in the database directory:
shell> myisam_ftdump /usr/local/mysql/data/test/mytexttable 1
You can use myisam_ftdump to generate a list of index entries in order of frequency of occurrence like this:
shell> myisam_ftdump -c mytexttable 1 | sort -r
myisam_ftdump supports the following options:

  • --help, -h -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --count, -c

    Calculate per-word statistics (counts and global weights).

  • --dump, -d

    Dump the index, including data offsets and word weights.

  • --length, -l

    Report the length distribution.

  • --stats, -s

    Report global index statistics. This is the default operation if no other operation is specified.

  • --verbose, -v

    3Verbose mode. Print more output about what the program does.

5.6.4 myisamchk Б─■ MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility

The myisamchk utility gets information about your database tables or checks, repairs, or optimizes them. myisamchk works with MyISAM tables (tables that have .MYD and .MYI files for storing data and indexes).

You can also use the CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE statements to check and repair MyISAM tables. See раздел 14.7.2.2, CHECK TABLE Syntax, and раздел 14.7.2.5, REPAIR TABLE Syntax.

The use of myisamchk with partitioned tables is not supported.

It is best to make a backup of a table before performing a table repair operation; under some circumstances the operation might cause data loss. Possible causes include but are not limited to file system errors.

Invoke myisamchk like this:

shell> myisamchk [options] tbl_name ...
The options specify what you want myisamchk to do. They are described in the following разделs. You can also get a list of options by invoking myisamchk --help.

With no options, myisamchk simply checks your table as the default operation. To get more information or to tell myisamchk to take corrective action, specify options as described in the following discussion.

tbl_name is the database table you want to check or repair. If you run myisamchk somewhere other than in the database directory, you must specify the path to the database directory, because myisamchk has no idea where the database is located. In fact, myisamchk does not actually care whether the files you are working on are located in a database directory. You can copy the files that correspond to a database table into some other location and perform recovery operations on them there.

You can name several tables on the myisamchk command line if you wish. You can also specify a table by naming its index file (the file with the .MYI suffix). This enables you to specify all tables in a directory by using the pattern *.MYI. For example, if you are in a database directory, you can check all the MyISAM tables in that directory like this:

shell> myisamchk *.MYI
If you are not in the database directory, you can check all the tables there by specifying the path to the directory:
shell> myisamchk /path/to/database_dir/*.MYI
You can even check all tables in all databases by specifying a wildcard with the path to the MySQL data directory:
shell> myisamchk /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
The recommended way to quickly check all MyISAM tables is:
shell> myisamchk --silent --fast /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
If you want to check all MyISAM tables and repair any that are corrupted, you can use the following command:
shell> myisamchk --silent --force --fast --update-state \
          --key_buffer_size=64M --myisam_sort_buffer_size=64M \
          --read_buffer_size=1M --write_buffer_size=1M \
          /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
This command assumes that you have more than 64MB free. For more information about memory allocation with myisamchk, see раздел 5.6.4.6, myisamchk Memory Usage.

For additional information about using myisamchk, see раздел 8.6, MyISAM Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery.

You must ensure that no other program is using the tables while you are running myisamchk. The most effective means of doing so is to shut down the MySQL server while running myisamchk, or to lock all tables that myisamchk is being used on.

Otherwise, when you run myisamchk, it may display the following error message:

warning: clients are using or haven't closed the table properly
This means that you are trying to check a table that has been updated by another program (such as the mysqld server) that hasn't yet closed the file or that has died without closing the file properly, which can sometimes lead to the corruption of one or more MyISAM tables.

If mysqld is running, you must force it to flush any table modifications that are still buffered in memory by using FLUSH TABLES. You should then ensure that no one is using the tables while you are running myisamchk

However, the easiest way to avoid this problem is to use CHECK TABLE instead of myisamchk to check tables. See раздел 14.7.2.2, CHECK TABLE Syntax.

myisamchk supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [myisamchk] group of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6.

Table 5.16 myisamchk Options

FormatDescription
--analyzeAnalyze the distribution of key values
--backup Make a backup of the .MYD file as file_name-time.BAK
--block-searchFind the record that a block at the given offset belongs to
--check Check the table for errors
--check-only-changedCheck only tables that have changed since the last check
--correct-checksumCorrect the checksum information for the table
--data-file-lengthMaximum length of the data file (when re-creating data file when it is full)
--debug Write debugging log
--decode_bitsDecode_bits
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--descriptionPrint some descriptive information about the table
--extend-checkDo very thorough table check or repair that tries to recover every possible row from the data file
--fast Check only tables that haven't been closed properly
--force Do a repair operation automatically if myisamchk finds any errors in the table
--force Overwrite old temporary files. For use with the -r or -o option
--ft_max_word_len Maximum word length for FULLTEXT indexes
--ft_min_word_len Minimum word length for FULLTEXT indexes
--ft_stopword_file Use stopwords from this file instead of built-in list
--HELPDisplay help message and exit
--helpDisplay help message and exit
--informationPrint informational statistics about the table that is checked
--key_buffer_size Size of buffer used for index blocks for MyISAM tables
--keys-usedA bit-value that indicates which indexes to update
--max-record-lengthSkip rows larger than the given length if myisamchk cannot allocate memory to hold them
--medium-checkDo a check that is faster than an --extend-check operation
--myisam_block_size Block size to be used for MyISAM index pages
--myisam_sort_buffer_size The buffer that is allocated when sorting the index when doing a REPAIR or when creating indexes with CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--parallel-recoverUses the same technique as -r and -n, but creates all the keys in parallel, using different threads (beta)
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--quick Achieve a faster repair by not modifying the data file.
--read_buffer_sizeEach thread that does a sequential scan allocates a buffer of this size for each table it scans
--read-onlyDo not mark the table as checked
--recoverDo a repair that can fix almost any problem except unique keys that aren't unique
--safe-recoverDo a repair using an old recovery method that reads through all rows in order and updates all index trees based on the rows found
--set-auto-incrementForce AUTO_INCREMENT numbering for new records to start at the given value
--set-collation Specify the collation to use for sorting table indexes
--silent Silent mode
--sort_buffer_sizeThe buffer that is allocated when sorting the index when doing a REPAIR or when creating indexes with CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE
--sort-indexSort the index tree blocks in high-low order
--sort_key_blockssort_key_blocks
--sort-recordsSort records according to a particular index
--sort-recoverForce myisamchk to use sorting to resolve the keys even if the temporary files would be very large
--stats_method Specifies how MyISAM index statistics collection code should treat NULLs
--tmpdirPath of the directory to be used for storing temporary files
--unpackUnpack a table that was packed with myisampack
--update-stateStore information in the .MYI file to indicate when the table was checked and whether the table crashed
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
--write_buffer_size Write buffer size

5.6.4.1 myisamchk General Options

The options described in this раздел can be used for any type of table maintenance operation performed by myisamchk. The разделs following this one describe options that pertain only to specific operations, such as table checking or repairing.

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit. Options are grouped by type of operation.

  • --HELP, -H

    Display a help message and exit. Options are presented in a single list.

  • --debug= debug_options, -# debug_options

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/myisamchk.trace.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, myisamchk normally reads the [myisamchk] group. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, myisamchk also reads the [myisamchk_other] group.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Write output only when errors occur. You can use -s twice (-ss) to make myisamchk very silent.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does. This can be used with -d and -e. Use -v multiple times (-vv, -vvv) for even more output.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

  • --wait, -w

    Instead of terminating with an error if the table is locked, wait until the table is unlocked before continuing. If you are running mysqld with external locking disabled, the table can be locked only by another myisamchk command.

You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value syntax:

VariableDefault Value
decode_bits9
ft_max_word_lenversion-dependent
ft_min_word_len4
ft_stopword_filebuilt-in list
key_buffer_size523264
myisam_block_size1024
myisam_sort_key_blocks16
read_buffer_size262136
sort_buffer_size2097144
sort_key_blocks16
stats_methodnulls_unequal
write_buffer_size262136

The possible myisamchk variables and their default values can be examined with myisamchk --help:

myisam_sort_buffer_size is used when the keys are repaired by sorting keys, which is the normal case when you use --recover. sort_buffer_size is a deprecated synonym for myisam_sort_buffer_size.

key_buffer_size is used when you are checking the table with --extend-check or when the keys are repaired by inserting keys row by row into the table (like when doing normal inserts). Repairing through the key buffer is used in the following cases:

  • You use --safe-recover.

  • The temporary files needed to sort the keys would be more than twice as big as when creating the key file directly. This is often the case when you have large key values for CHAR, VARCHAR, or TEXT columns, because the sort operation needs to store the complete key values as it proceeds. If you have lots of temporary space and you can force myisamchk to repair by sorting, you can use the --sort-recover option.

Repairing through the key buffer takes much less disk space than using sorting, but is also much slower.

If you want a faster repair, set the key_buffer_size and myisam_sort_buffer_size variables to about 25% of your available memory. You can set both variables to large values, because only one of them is used at a time.

myisam_block_size is the size used for index blocks.

stats_method influences how NULL values are treated for index statistics collection when the --analyze option is given. It acts like the myisam_stats_method system variable. For more information, see the description of myisam_stats_method in раздел 6.1.5, Server System Variables, and раздел 9.3.7, InnoDB and MyISAM Index Statistics Collection.

ft_min_word_len and ft_max_word_len indicate the minimum and maximum word length for FULLTEXT indexes on MyISAM tables. ft_stopword_file names the stopword file. These need to be set under the following circumstances.

If you use myisamchk to perform an operation that modifies table indexes (such as repair or analyze), the FULLTEXT indexes are rebuilt using the default full-text parameter values for minimum and maximum word length and the stopword file unless you specify otherwise. This can result in queries failing.

The problem occurs because these parameters are known only by the server. They are not stored in MyISAM index files. To avoid the problem if you have modified the minimum or maximum word length or the stopword file in the server, specify the same ft_min_word_len, ft_max_word_len, and ft_stopword_file values to myisamchk that you use for mysqld. For example, if you have set the minimum word length to 3, you can repair a table with myisamchk like this:

shell> myisamchk --recover --ft_min_word_len=3 tbl_name.MYI
To ensure that myisamchk and the server use the same values for full-text parameters, you can place each one in both the [mysqld] and [myisamchk] разделs of an option file:
[mysqld]
ft_min_word_len=3

[myisamchk]
ft_min_word_len=3
An alternative to using myisamchk is to use the REPAIR TABLE, ANALYZE TABLE, OPTIMIZE TABLE, or ALTER TABLE. These statements are performed by the server, which knows the proper full-text parameter values to use.

5.6.4.2 myisamchk Check Options

myisamchk supports the following options for table checking operations:

  • --check, -c

    Check the table for errors. This is the default operation if you specify no option that selects an operation type explicitly.

  • --check-only-changed, -C

    Check only tables that have changed since the last check.

  • --extend-check, -e

    Check the table very thoroughly. This is quite slow if the table has many indexes. This option should only be used in extreme cases. Normally, myisamchk or myisamchk --medium-check should be able to determine whether there are any errors in the table.

    If you are using --extend-check and have plenty of memory, setting the key_buffer_size variable to a large value helps the repair operation run faster.

    See also the description of this option under table repair options.

    For a description of the output format, see раздел 5.6.4.5.

  • --fast, -F

    Check only tables that haven't been closed properly.

  • --force, -f

    Do a repair operation automatically if myisamchk finds any errors in the table. The repair type is the same as that specified with the --recover or -r option.

  • --information , -i

    Print informational statistics about the table that is checked.

  • --medium-check , -m

    Do a check that is faster than an --extend-check operation. This finds only 99.99% of all errors, which should be good enough in most cases.

  • --read-only , -T

    Do not mark the table as checked. This is useful if you use myisamchk to check a table that is in use by some other application that does not use locking, such as mysqld when run with external locking disabled.

  • --update-state, -U

    Store information in the .MYI file to indicate when the table was checked and whether the table crashed. This should be used to get full benefit of the --check-only-changed option, but you shouldn't use this option if the mysqld server is using the table and you are running it with external locking disabled.

5.6.4.3 myisamchk Repair Options

myisamchk supports the following options for table repair operations (operations performed when an option such as --recover or --safe-recover is given):

  • --backup, -B

    Make a backup of the .MYD file as file_name-time.BAK

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --correct-checksum

    Correct the checksum information for the table.

  • --data-file-length=len, -D len

    The maximum length of the data file (when re-creating data file when it is full).

  • --extend-check, -e

    Do a repair that tries to recover every possible row from the data file. Normally, this also finds a lot of garbage rows. Do not use this option unless you are desperate.

    See also the description of this option under table checking options.

    For a description of the output format, see раздел 5.6.4.5.

  • --force, -f

    Overwrite old intermediate files (files with names like tbl_name.TMD) instead of aborting.

  • --keys-used= val, -k val

    For myisamchk, the option value is a bit value that indicates which indexes to update. Each binary bit of the option value corresponds to a table index, where the first index is bit 0. An option value of 0 disables updates to all indexes, which can be used to get faster inserts. Deactivated indexes can be reactivated by using myisamchk -r.

  • --no-symlinks , -l

    Do not follow symbolic links. Normally myisamchk repairs the table that a symlink points to. This option does not exist as of MySQL 4.0 because versions from 4.0 on do not remove symlinks during repair operations.

  • --max-record-length=len

    Skip rows larger than the given length if myisamchk cannot allocate memory to hold them.

  • --parallel-recover, -p

    Use the same technique as -r and -n, but create all the keys in parallel, using different threads. This is beta-quality code. Use at your own risk!

  • --quick, -q

    Achieve a faster repair by modifying only the index file, not the data file. You can specify this option twice to force myisamchk to modify the original data file in case of duplicate keys.

  • --recover, -r

    Do a repair that can fix almost any problem except unique keys that are not unique (which is an extremely unlikely error with MyISAM tables). If you want to recover a table, this is the option to try first. You should try --safe-recover only if myisamchk reports that the table cannot be recovered using --recover. (In the unlikely case that --recover fails, the data file remains intact.)

    If you have lots of memory, you should increase the value of myisam_sort_buffer_size.

  • --safe-recover, -o

    Do a repair using an old recovery method that reads through all rows in order and updates all index trees based on the rows found. This is an order of magnitude slower than --recover, but can handle a couple of very unlikely cases that --recover cannot. This recovery method also uses much less disk space than --recover. Normally, you should repair first using --recover, and then with --safe-recover only if --recover fails.

    If you have lots of memory, you should increase the value of key_buffer_size.

  • --set-collation=name

    Specify the collation to use for sorting table indexes. The character set name is implied by the first part of the collation name.

  • --sort-recover, -n

    Force myisamchk to use sorting to resolve the keys even if the temporary files would be very large.

  • --tmpdir= dir_name, -t dir_name

    The path of the directory to be used for storing temporary files. If this is not set, myisamchk uses the value of the TMPDIR environment variable. --tmpdir can be set to a list of directory paths that are used successively in round-robin fashion for creating temporary files. The separator character between directory names is the colon (:) on Unix and the semicolon (;) on Windows.

  • --unpack, -u

    Unpack a table that was packed with myisampack.

5.6.4.4 Other myisamchk Options

myisamchk supports the following options for actions other than table checks and repairs:

  • --analyze, -a

    Analyze the distribution of key values. This improves join performance by enabling the join optimizer to better choose the order in which to join the tables and which indexes it should use. To obtain information about the key distribution, use a myisamchk --description --verbose tbl_name command or the SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name statement.

  • --block-search=offset, -b offset

    Find the record that a block at the given offset belongs to.

  • --description , -d

    Print some descriptive information about the table. Specifying the --verbose option once or twice produces additional information. See раздел 5.6.4.5.

  • --set-auto-increment[=value], -A[value]

    Force AUTO_INCREMENT numbering for new records to start at the given value (or higher, if there are existing records with AUTO_INCREMENT values this large). If value is not specified, AUTO_INCREMENT numbers for new records begin with the largest value currently in the table, plus one.

  • --sort-index , -S

    Sort the index tree blocks in high-low order. This optimizes seeks and makes table scans that use indexes faster.

  • --sort-records=N, -R N

    Sort records according to a particular index. This makes your data much more localized and may speed up range-based SELECT and ORDER BY operations that use this index. (The first time you use this option to sort a table, it may be very slow.) To determine a table's index numbers, use SHOW INDEX, which displays a table's indexes in the same order that myisamchk sees them. Indexes are numbered beginning with 1.

    If keys are not packed (PACK_KEYS=0), they have the same length, so when myisamchk sorts and moves records, it just overwrites record offsets in the index. If keys are packed (PACK_KEYS=1), myisamchk must unpack key blocks first, then re-create indexes and pack the key blocks again. (In this case, re-creating indexes is faster than updating offsets for each index.)

5.6.4.5 Obtaining Table Information with myisamchk

To obtain a description of a MyISAM table or statistics about it, use the commands shown here. The output from these commands is explained later in this раздел.

  • myisamchk -d tbl_name

    Runs myisamchk in describe mode to produce a description of your table. If you start the MySQL server with external locking disabled, myisamchk may report an error for a table that is updated while it runs. However, because myisamchk does not change the table in describe mode, there is no risk of destroying data.

  • myisamchk -dv tbl_name

    Adding -v runs myisamchk in verbose mode so that it produces more information about the table. Adding -v a second time produces even more information.

  • myisamchk -eis tbl_name

    Shows only the most important information from a table. This operation is slow because it must read the entire table.

  • myisamchk -eiv tbl_name

    This is like -eis, but tells you what is being done.

The tbl_name argument can be either the name of a MyISAM table or the name of its index file, as described in раздел 5.6.4. Multiple tbl_name arguments can be given.

Suppose that a table named person has the following structure. (The MAX_ROWS table option is included so that in the example output from myisamchk shown later, some values are smaller and fit the output format more easily.)

CREATE TABLE person (id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
                     last_name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
                     first_name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
                     birthDATE, deathDATE, PRIMARY KEY (id),
                     INDEX (last_name, first_name), INDEX (birth))
                     MAX_ROWS = 1000000;
Suppose also that the table has these data and index file sizes:
-rw-rw----  1 mysql  mysql  9347072 Aug 19 11:47 person.MYD
-rw-rw----  1 mysql  mysql  6066176 Aug 19 11:47 person.MYI
Example of myisamchk -dvv output:
MyISAM file: person
Record format: Packed
Character set: latin1_swedish_ci (8)
File-version:1
Creation time: 2009-08-19 16:47:41
Recover time:2009-08-19 16:47:56
Status:  checked,analyzed,optimized keys
Auto increment key:  1  Last value:306688
Data records:   306688  Deleted blocks: 0
Datafile parts: 306688  Deleted data: 0
Datafile pointer (bytes):4  Keyfile pointer (bytes):3
Datafile length:   9347072  Keyfile length:   6066176
Max datafile length:4294967294  Max keyfile length:   17179868159
Recordlength: 54

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type            Rec/key Root  Blocksize
1   2     4   unique  long            199328        1024
2   6     20  multip. varchar prefix  5123563520    1024
2   7     20          varchar         512
3   4     83  multip. uint24 NULL     3066886065152 1024

Field Start Length Nullpos Nullbit  Type
1     1     1
2     2     4              no zeros
3     6     21                      varchar
4     27    21                      varchar
5     48    31     1       no zeros
6     51    31     2       no zeros
Explanations for the types of information myisamchk produces are given here. Keyfile refers to the index file. Record and row are synonymous, as are field and column.

The initial part of the table description contains these values:

  • MyISAM file

    Name of the MyISAM (index) file.

  • Record format

    The format used to store table rows. The preceding examples use Fixed length. Other possible values are Compressed and Packed. (Packed corresponds to what SHOW TABLE STATUS reports as Dynamic.)

  • Chararacter set

    The table default character set.

  • File-version

    Version of MyISAM format. Always 1.

  • Creation time

    When the data file was created.

  • Recover time

    When the index/data file was last reconstructed.

  • Status

    Table status flags. Possible values are crashed, open, changed, analyzed, optimized keys, and sorted index pages.

  • Auto increment key, Last value

    The key number associated the table's AUTO_INCREMENT column, and the most recently generated value for this column. These fields do not appear if there is no such column.

  • Data records

    The number of rows in the table.

  • Deleted blocks

    How many deleted blocks still have reserved space. You can optimize your table to minimize this space. See раздел 8.6.4, MyISAM Table Optimization.

  • Datafile parts

    For dynamic-row format, this indicates how many data blocks there are. For an optimized table without fragmented rows, this is the same as Data records.

  • Deleted data

    How many bytes of unreclaimed deleted data there are. You can optimize your table to minimize this space. See раздел 8.6.4, MyISAM Table Optimization.

  • Datafile pointer

    The size of the data file pointer, in bytes. It is usually 2, 3, 4, or 5 bytes. Most tables manage with 2 bytes, but this cannot be controlled from MySQL yet. For fixed tables, this is a row address. For dynamic tables, this is a byte address.

  • Keyfile pointer

    The size of the index file pointer, in bytes. It is usually 1, 2, or 3 bytes. Most tables manage with 2 bytes, but this is calculated automatically by MySQL. It is always a block address.

  • Max datafile length

    How long the table data file can become, in bytes.

  • Max keyfile length

    How long the table index file can become, in bytes.

  • Record length

    How much space each row takes, in bytes.

The table description part of the output includes a list of all keys in the table. For each key, myisamchk displays some low-level information:

  • Key

    This key's number. This value is shown only for the first column of the key. If this value is missing, the line corresponds to the second or later column of a multiple-column key. For the table shown in the example, there are two table description lines for the second index. This indicates that it is a multiple-part index with two parts.

  • Start

    Where in the row this portion of the index starts.

  • Len

    How long this portion of the index is. For packed numbers, this should always be the full length of the column. For strings, it may be shorter than the full length of the indexed column, because you can index a prefix of a string column. The total length of a multiple-part key is the sum of the Len values for all key parts.

  • Index

    Whether a key value can exist multiple times in the index. Possible values are unique or multip. (multiple).

  • Type

    What data type this portion of the index has. This is a MyISAM data type with the possible values packed, stripped, or empty.

  • Root

    Address of the root index block.

  • Block size

    The size of each index block. By default this is 1024, but the value may be changed at compile time when MySQL is built from source.

  • Rec/key

    This is a statistical value used by the optimizer. It tells how many rows there are per value for this index. A unique index always has a value of 1. This may be updated after a table is loaded (or greatly changed) with myisamchk -a. If this is not updated at all, a default value of 30 is given.

The last part of the output provides information about each column:

  • Field

    The column number.

  • Start

    The byte position of the column within table rows.

  • Length

    The length of the column in bytes.

  • Nullpos, Nullbit

    For columns that can be NULL, MyISAM stores NULL values as a flag in a byte. Depending on how many nullable columns there are, there can be one or more bytes used for this purpose. The Nullpos and Nullbit values, if nonempty, indicate which byte and bit contains that flag indicating whether the column is NULL.

    The position and number of bytes used to store NULL flags is shown in the line for field 1. This is why there are six Field lines for the person table even though it has only five columns.

  • Type

    The data type. The value may contain any of the following descriptors:

    • constant

      All rows have the same value.

    • no endspace

      Do not store endspace.

    • no endspace, not_always

      Do not store endspace and do not do endspace compression for all values.

    • no endspace, no empty

      Do not store endspace. Do not store empty values.

    • table-lookup

      The column was converted to an ENUM.

    • zerofill(N)

      The most significant N bytes in the value are always 0 and are not stored.

    • no zeros

      Do not store zeros.

    • always zero

      Zero values are stored using one bit.

  • Huff tree

    The number of the Huffman tree associated with the column.

  • Bits

    The number of bits used in the Huffman tree.

The Huff tree and Bits fields are displayed if the table has been compressed with myisampack. See раздел 5.6.6, for an example of this information.

Example of myisamchk -eiv output:

Checking MyISAM file: person
Data records:  306688   Deleted blocks: 0
- check file-size
- check record delete-chain
No recordlinks
- check key delete-chain
block_size 1024:
- check index reference
- check data record references index: 1
Key:  1:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 2
Key:  2:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:   97%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 3
Key:  3:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:  -14%  Max levels:  3
Total:Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:   89%

- check records and index references
*** LOTS OF ROW NUMBERS DELETED ***

Records:306688  M.recordlength: 25  Packed:83%
Recordspace used: 97% Empty space:   2% Blocks/Record:   1.00
Record blocks:306688  Delete blocks: 0
Record data: 7934464  Deleted data:  0
Lost space: 256512  Linkdata:1156096

User time 43.08, System time 1.68
Maximum resident set size 0, Integral resident set size 0
Non-physical pagefaults 0, Physical pagefaults 0, Swaps 0
Blocks in 0 out 7, Messages in 0 out 0, Signals 0
Voluntary context switches 0, Involuntary context switches 0
Maximum memory usage: 1046926 bytes (1023k)
myisamchk -eiv output includes the following information:

  • Data records

    The number of rows in the table.

  • Deleted blocks

    How many deleted blocks still have reserved space. You can optimize your table to minimize this space. See раздел 8.6.4, MyISAM Table Optimization.

  • Key

    The key number.

  • Keyblocks used

    What percentage of the keyblocks are used. When a table has just been reorganized with myisamchk, the values are very high (very near theoretical maximum).

  • Packed

    MySQL tries to pack key values that have a common suffix. This can only be used for indexes on CHAR and VARCHAR columns. For long indexed strings that have similar leftmost parts, this can significantly reduce the space used. In the preceding example, the second key is 40 bytes long and a 97% reduction in space is achieved.

  • Max levels

    How deep the B-tree for this key is. Large tables with long key values get high values.

  • Records

    How many rows are in the table.

  • M.record length

    The average row length. This is the exact row length for tables with fixed-length rows, because all rows have the same length.

  • Packed

    MySQL strips spaces from the end of strings. The Packed value indicates the percentage of savings achieved by doing this.

  • Record space used

    What percentage of the data file is used.

  • Empty space

    What percentage of the data file is unused.

  • Blocks/Record

    Average number of blocks per row (that is, how many links a fragmented row is composed of). This is always 1.0 for fixed-format tables. This value should stay as close to 1.0 as possible. If it gets too large, you can reorganize the table. See раздел 8.6.4, MyISAM Table Optimization.

  • Record blocks

    How many blocks (links) are used. For fixed-format tables, this is the same as the number of rows.

  • Delete blocks

    How many blocks (links) are deleted.

  • Record data

    How many bytes in the data file are used.

  • Deleted data

    How many bytes in the data file are deleted (unused).

  • Lost space

    If a row is updated to a shorter length, some space is lost. This is the sum of all such losses, in bytes.

  • Linkdata

    When the dynamic table format is used, row fragments are linked with pointers (4 to 7 bytes each). Linkdata is the sum of the amount of storage used by all such pointers.

5.6.4.6 myisamchk Memory Usage

Memory allocation is important when you run myisamchk. myisamchk uses no more memory than its memory-related variables are set to. If you are going to use myisamchk on very large tables, you should first decide how much memory you want it to use. The default is to use only about 3MB to perform repairs. By using larger values, you can get myisamchk to operate faster. For example, if you have more than 512MB RAM available, you could use options such as these (in addition to any other options you might specify):

shell> myisamchk --myisam_sort_buffer_size=256M \
                    --key_buffer_size=512M \
                    --read_buffer_size=64M --write_buffer_size=64M ...
Using --myisam_sort_buffer_size=16M is probably enough for most cases.

Be aware that myisamchk uses temporary files in TMPDIR. If TMPDIR points to a memory file system, out of memory errors can easily occur. If this happens, run myisamchk with the --tmpdir=dir_name option to specify a directory located on a file system that has more space.

When performing repair operations, myisamchk also needs a lot of disk space:

  • Twice the size of the data file (the original file and a copy). This space is not needed if you do a repair with --quick; in this case, only the index file is re-created. This space must be available on the same file system as the original data file, as the copy is created in the same directory as the original.

  • Space for the new index file that replaces the old one. The old index file is truncated at the start of the repair operation, so you usually ignore this space. This space must be available on the same file system as the original data file.
  • When using --recover or --sort-recover (but not when using --safe-recover), you need space on disk for sorting. This space is allocated in the temporary directory (specified by TMPDIR or --tmpdir=dir_name). The following formula yields the amount of space required:
    (largest_key + row_pointer_length) * number_of_rows * 2
    
    You can check the length of the keys and the row_pointer_length with myisamchk -dv tbl_name (see раздел 5.6.4.5). The row_pointer_length and number_of_rows values are the Datafile pointer and Data records values in the table description. To determine the largest_key value, check the Key lines in the table description. The Len column indicates the number of bytes for each key part. For a multiple-column index, the key size is the sum of the Len values for all key parts.

If you have a problem with disk space during repair, you can try --safe-recover instead of --recover.

5.6.5 myisamlog Б─■ Display MyISAM Log File Contents

myisamlog processes the contents of a MyISAM log file. To create such a file, start the server with a --log-isam=log_file option.

Invoke myisamlog like this:

shell> myisamlog [options] [file_name [tbl_name] ...]
The default operation is update (-u). If a recovery is done (-r), all writes and possibly updates and deletes are done and errors are only counted. The default log file name is myisam.log if no log_file argument is given. If tables are named on the command line, only those tables are updated.

myisamlog supports the following options:

  • -?, -I

    Display a help message and exit.

  • -c N

    Execute only N commands.

  • -f N

    Specify the maximum number of open files.

  • -i

    Display extra information before exiting.

  • -o offset

    Specify the starting offset.

  • -p N

    Remove N components from path.

  • -r

    Perform a recovery operation.

  • -R record_pos_file record_pos

    Specify record position file and record position.

  • -u

    Perform an update operation.

  • -v

    Verbose mode. Print more output about what the program does. This option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output.

  • -w write_file

    Specify the write file.

  • -V

    Display version information.

5.6.6 myisampack Б─■ Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables

The myisampack utility compresses MyISAM tables. myisampack works by compressing each column in the table separately. Usually, myisampack packs the data file 40% to 70%.

When the table is used later, the server reads into memory the information needed to decompress columns. This results in much better performance when accessing individual rows, because you only have to uncompress exactly one row.

MySQL uses mmap() when possible to perform memory mapping on compressed tables. If mmap() does not work, MySQL falls back to normal read/write file operations.

Please note the following:

  • If the mysqld server was invoked with external locking disabled, it is not a good idea to invoke myisampack if the table might be updated by the server during the packing process. It is safest to compress tables with the server stopped.

  • After packing a table, it becomes read only. This is generally intended (such as when accessing packed tables on a CD).
  • myisampack does not support partitioned tables.

Invoke myisampack like this:

shell> myisampack [options] file_name ...
Each file name argument should be the name of an index (.MYI) file. If you are not in the database directory, you should specify the path name to the file. It is permissible to omit the .MYI extension.

After you compress a table with myisampack, use myisamchk -rq to rebuild its indexes. раздел 5.6.4.

myisampack supports the following options. It also reads option files and supports the options for processing them described at раздел 5.2.7.

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --backup, -b

    Make a backup of each table's data file using the name tbl_name.OLD.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --debug[= debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o.

  • --force, -f

    Produce a packed table even if it becomes larger than the original or if the intermediate file from an earlier invocation of myisampack exists. (myisampack creates an intermediate file named tbl_name.TMD in the database directory while it compresses the table. If you kill myisampack, the .TMD file might not be deleted.) Normally, myisampack exits with an error if it finds that tbl_name.TMD exists. With --force, myisampack packs the table anyway.

  • --join= big_tbl_name, -j big_tbl_name

    Join all tables named on the command line into a single packed table big_tbl_name. All tables that are to be combined must have identical structure (same column names and types, same indexes, and so forth).

    big_tbl_name must not exist prior to the join operation. All source tables named on the command line to be merged into big_tbl_name must exist. The source tables are read for the join operation but not modified.

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Write output only when errors occur.

  • --test, -t

    Do not actually pack the table, just test packing it.

  • --tmpdir=dir_name, -T dir_name

    Use the named directory as the location where myisampack creates temporary files.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Write information about the progress of the packing operation and its result.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

  • --wait, -w

    Wait and retry if the table is in use. If the mysqld server was invoked with external locking disabled, it is not a good idea to invoke myisampack if the table might be updated by the server during the packing process.

The following sequence of commands illustrates a typical table compression session:

shell> ls -l station.*
-rw-rw-r--   1 montymy 994128 Apr 17 19:00 station.MYD
-rw-rw-r--   1 montymy  53248 Apr 17 19:00 station.MYI

shell> myisamchk -dvv station
MyISAM file: station
Isam-version:  2
Creation time: 1996-03-13 10:08:58
Recover time:  1997-02-02  3:06:43
Data records:  1192  Deleted blocks:  0
Datafile parts:1192  Deleted data:0
Datafile pointer (bytes): 2  Keyfile pointer (bytes): 2
Max datafile length:   54657023  Max keyfile length:   33554431
Recordlength:   834
Record format: Fixed length

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type          Root  Blocksize Rec/key
1   2     4   unique  unsigned long 1024  1024      1
2   32    30  multip. text          10240 1024      1

Field Start Length Type
1     1     1
2     2     4
3     6     4
4     10    1
5     11    20
6     31    1
7     32    30
8     62    35
9     97    35
10    132   35
11    167   4
12    171   16
13    187   35
14    222   4
15    226   16
16    242   20
17    262   20
18    282   20
19    302   30
20    332   4
21    336   4
22    340   1
23    341   8
24    349   8
25    357   8
26    365   2
27    367   2
28    369   4
29    373   4
30    377   1
31    378   2
32    380   8
33    388   4
34    392   4
35    396   4
36    400   4
37    404   1
38    405   4
39    409   4
40    413   4
41    417   4
42    421   4
43    425   4
44    429   20
45    449   30
46    479   1
47    480   1
48    481   79
49    560   79
50    639   79
51    718   79
52    797   8
53    805   1
54    806   1
55    807   20
56    827   4
57    831   4

shell> myisampack station.MYI
Compressing station.MYI: (1192 records)
- Calculating statistics

normal: 20  empty-space:   16  empty-zero: 12  empty-fill:  11
pre-space:   0  end-space: 12  table-lookups:   5  zero: 7
Original trees:  57  After join: 17
- Compressing file
87.14%
Remember to run myisamchk -rq on compressed tables

shell> myisamchk -rq station
- check record delete-chain
- recovering (with sort) MyISAM-table 'station'
Data records: 1192
- Fixing index 1
- Fixing index 2

shell> mysqladmin -uroot flush-tables
shell> ls -l station.*
-rw-rw-r--   1 montymy 127874 Apr 17 19:00 station.MYD
-rw-rw-r--   1 montymy  55296 Apr 17 19:04 station.MYI

shell> myisamchk -dvv station
MyISAM file: station
Isam-version:  2
Creation time: 1996-03-13 10:08:58
Recover time:  1997-04-17 19:04:26
Data records:   1192  Deleted blocks:  0
Datafile parts: 1192  Deleted data:0
Datafile pointer (bytes):3  Keyfile pointer (bytes): 1
Max datafile length:16777215  Max keyfile length: 131071
Recordlength:834
Record format: Compressed

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type          Root     Blocksize Rec/key
1   2     4   unique  unsigned long 10240    1024      1
2   32    30  multip. text          54272    1024      1

Field   Start Length Type                               Huff tree  Bits
1       1     1      constant                           1          0
2       2     4      zerofill(1)                        2          9
3       6     4      no zeros, zerofill(1)              2          9
4       10    1                                         3          9
5       11    20     table-lookup                       4          0
6       31    1                                         3          9
7       32    30     no endspace, not_always            5          9
8       62    35     no endspace, not_always, no empty  6          9
9       97    35     no empty                           7          9
10      132   35     no endspace, not_always, no empty  6          9
11      167   4      zerofill(1)                        2          9
12      171   16     no endspace, not_always, no empty  5          9
13      187   35     no endspace, not_always, no empty  6          9
14      222   4      zerofill(1)                        2          9
15      226   16     no endspace, not_always, no empty  5          9
16      242   20     no endspace, not_always            8          9
17      262   20     no endspace, no empty              8          9
18      282   20     no endspace, no empty              5          9
19      302   30     no endspace, no empty              6          9
20      332   4      always zero                        2          9
21      336   4      always zero                        2          9
22      340   1                                         3          9
23      341   8      table-lookup                       9          0
24      349   8      table-lookup                       10         0
25      357   8      always zero                        2          9
26      365   2                                         2          9
27      367   2      no zeros, zerofill(1)              2          9
28      369   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)              2          9
29      373   4      table-lookup                       11         0
30      377   1                                         3          9
31      378   2      no zeros, zerofill(1)              2          9
32      380   8      no zeros                           2          9
33      388   4      always zero                        2          9
34      392   4      table-lookup                       12         0
35      396   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)              13         9
36      400   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)              2          9
37      404   1                                         2          9
38      405   4      no zeros                           2          9
39      409   4      always zero                        2          9
40      413   4      no zeros                           2          9
41      417   4      always zero                        2          9
42      421   4      no zeros                           2          9
43      425   4      always zero                        2          9
44      429   20     no empty                           3          9
45      449   30     no empty                           3          9
46      479   1                                         14         4
47      480   1                                         14         4
48      481   79     no endspace, no empty              15         9
49      560   79     no empty                           2          9
50      639   79     no empty                           2          9
51      718   79     no endspace                        16         9
52      797   8      no empty                           2          9
53      805   1                                         17         1
54      806   1                                         3          9
55      807   20     no empty                           3          9
56      827   4      no zeros, zerofill(2)              2          9
57      831   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)              2          9
myisampack displays the following kinds of information:

  • normal

    The number of columns for which no extra packing is used.

  • empty-space

    The number of columns containing values that are only spaces. These occupy one bit.

  • empty-zero

    The number of columns containing values that are only binary zeros. These occupy one bit.

  • empty-fill

    The number of integer columns that do not occupy the full byte range of their type. These are changed to a smaller type. For example, a BIGINT column (eight bytes) can be stored as a TINYINT column (one byte) if all its values are in the range from -128 to 127.

  • pre-space

    The number of decimal columns that are stored with leading spaces. In this case, each value contains a count for the number of leading spaces.

  • end-space

    The number of columns that have a lot of trailing spaces. In this case, each value contains a count for the number of trailing spaces.

  • table-lookup

    The column had only a small number of different values, which were converted to an ENUM before Huffman compression.

  • zero

    The number of columns for which all values are zero.

  • Original trees

    The initial number of Huffman trees.

  • After join

    The number of distinct Huffman trees left after joining trees to save some header space.

After a table has been compressed, the Field lines displayed by myisamchk -dvv include additional information about each column:

  • Type

    The data type. The value may contain any of the following descriptors:

    • constant

      All rows have the same value.

    • no endspace

      Do not store endspace.

    • no endspace, not_always

      Do not store endspace and do not do endspace compression for all values.

    • no endspace, no empty

      Do not store endspace. Do not store empty values.

    • table-lookup

      The column was converted to an ENUM.

    • zerofill(N)

      The most significant N bytes in the value are always 0 and are not stored.

    • no zeros

      Do not store zeros.

    • always zero

      Zero values are stored using one bit.

  • Huff tree

    The number of the Huffman tree associated with the column.

  • Bits

    The number of bits used in the Huffman tree.

After you run myisampack, use myisamchk to re-create any indexes. At this time, you can also sort the index blocks and create statistics needed for the MySQL optimizer to work more efficiently:

shell> myisamchk -rq --sort-index --analyze tbl_name.MYI
After you have installed the packed table into the MySQL database directory, you should execute mysqladmin flush-tables to force mysqld to start using the new table.

To unpack a packed table, use the --unpack option to myisamchk.

5.6.7 mysql_config_editor Б─■ MySQL Configuration Utility

The mysql_config_editor utility enables you to store authentication credentials in an encrypted login path file named .mylogin.cnf. The file location is the %APPDATA%\MySQL directory on Windows and the current user's home directory on non-Windows systems. The file can be read later by MySQL client programs to obtain authentication credentials for connecting to MySQL Server.

The unencrypted format of the .mylogin.cnf login path file consists of option groups, similar to other option files. Each option group in .mylogin.cnf is called a login path, which is a group that permits only certain options: host, user, password, port and socket. Think of a login path option group as a set of options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. Here is an unencrypted example:

[client]
user = mydefaultname
password = mydefaultpass
host = 127.0.0.1
[mypath]
user = myothername
password = myotherpass
host = localhost
When you invoke a client program to connect to the server, the client uses .mylogin.cnf in conjunction with other option files. Its precedence is higher than other option files, but less than options specified explicitly on the client command line. For information about the order in which option files are used, see раздел 5.2.6.

To specify an alternate login path file name, set the MYSQL_TEST_LOGIN_FILE environment variable. This variable is recognized by mysql_config_editor, by standard MySQL clients (mysql, mysqladmin, and so forth), and by the mysql-test-run.pl testing utility.

Programs use groups in the login path file as follows:

  • mysql_config_editor operates on the client login path by default if you specify no --login-path=name option to indicate explicitly which login path to use.

  • Without a --login-path option, client programs read the same option groups from the login path file that they read from other option files. Consider this command:
    shell> mysql
    
    By default, the mysql client reads the [client] and [mysql] groups from other option files, so it reads them from the login path file as well.
  • With a --login-path option, client programs additionally read the named login path from the login path file. The option groups read from other option files remain the same. Consider this command:
    shell> mysql --login-path=mypath
    
    The mysql client reads [client] and [mysql] from other option files, and [client], [mysql], and [mypath] from the login path file.
  • Client programs read the login path file even when the --no-defaults option is used. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even if --no-defaults is present.

mysql_config_editor encrypts the .mylogin.cnf file so it cannot be read as cleartext, and its contents when decrypted by client programs are used only in memory. In this way, passwords can be stored in a file in non-cleartext format and used later without ever needing to be exposed on the command line or in an environment variable. mysql_config_editor provides a print command for displaying the login path file contents, but even in this case, password values are masked so as never to appear in a way that other users can see them.

The encryption used by mysql_config_editor prevents passwords from appearing in .mylogin.cnf as cleartext and provides a measure of security by preventing inadvertent password exposure. For example, if you display a regular unencrypted my.cnf option file on the screen, any passwords it contains are visible for anyone to see. With .mylogin.cnf, that is not true. But the encryption used will not deter a determined attacker and you should not consider it unbreakable. A user who can gain system administration privileges on your machine to access your files could decrypt the .mylogin.cnf file with some effort.

The login path file must be readable and writable to the current user, and inaccessible to other users. Otherwise, mysql_config_editor ignores it, and client programs do not use it, either.

Invoke mysql_config_editor like this:

shell> mysql_config_editor [program_options] command [command_options]
If the login path file does not exist, mysql_config_editor creates it.

Command arguments are given as follows:

  • program_options consists of general mysql_config_editor options.

  • command indicates what action to perform on the .mylogin.cnf login path file. For example, set writes a login path to the file, remove removes a login path, and print displays login path contents.
  • command_options indicates any additional options specific to the command, such as the login path name and the values to use in the login path.

The position of the command name within the set of program arguments is significant. For example, these command lines have the same arguments, but produce different results:

shell> mysql_config_editor --help set
shell> mysql_config_editor set --help
The first command line displays a general mysql_config_editor help message, and ignores the set command. The second command line displays a help message specific to the set command.

Suppose that you want to establish a client login path that defines your default connection parameters, and an additional login path named remote for connecting to the MySQL server the host remote.example.com. You want to log in as follows:

  • By default, to the local server with a user name and password of localuser and localpass

  • To the remote server with a user name and password of remoteuser and remotepass

To set up the login paths in the .mylogin.cnf file, use the following set commands. Enter each command on a single line, and enter the appropriate passwords when prompted:

shell> mysql_config_editor set --login-path=client
                --host=localhost --user=localuser --password
Enter password: enter password "localpass" here
shell> mysql_config_editor set --login-path=remote
                --host=remote.example.com --user=remoteuser --password
Enter password: enter password "remotepass" here
mysql_config_editor uses the client login path by default, so the --login-path=client option can be omitted from the first command without changing its effect.

To see what mysql_config_editor writes to the .mylogin.cnf file, use the print command:

shell> mysql_config_editor print --all
[client]
user = localuser
password = *****
host = localhost
[remote]
user = remoteuser
password = *****
host = remote.example.com
The print command displays each login path as a set of lines beginning with a group header indicating the login path name in square brackets, followed by the option values for the login path. Password values are masked and do not appear as cleartext.

If you do not specify --all to display all login paths or --login-path=name to display a named login path, the print command displays the client login path by default, if there is one.

As shown by the preceding example, the login path file can contain multiple login paths. In this way, mysql_config_editor makes it easy to set up multiple personalities for connecting to different MySQL servers, or for connecting to a given server using different accounts. Any of these can be selected by name later using the --login-path option when you invoke a client program. For example, to connect to the remote server, use this command:

shell> mysql --login-path=remote
Here, mysql reads the [client] and [mysql] option groups from other option files, and the [client], [mysql], and [remote] groups from the login path file.

To connect to the local server, use this command:

shell> mysql --login-path=client
Because mysql reads the client and mysql login paths by default, the --login-path option does not add anything in this case. That command is equivalent to this one:
shell> mysql
Options read from the login path file take precedence over options read from other option files. Options read from login path groups appearing later in the login path file take precedence over options read from groups appearing earlier in the file.

mysql_config_editor adds login paths to the login path file in the order you create them, so you should create more general login paths first and more specific paths later. If you need to move a login path within the file, you can remove it, then recreate it to add it to the end.

When you use the set command with mysql_config_editor to create a login path, you need not specify all possible option values (host name, user name, password, port, socket). Only those values given are written to the path. Any missing values required later can be specified when you invoke a client path to connect to the MySQL server, either in other option files or on the command line. Any options specified on the command line override those specified in the login path file or other option files. For example, if the credentials in the remote login path also apply for the host remote2.example.com, connect to the server on that host like this:

shell> mysql --login-path=remote --host=remote2.example.com

mysql_config_editor General Options

mysql_config_editor supports the following general options, which may be used preceding any command named on the command line. For descriptions of command-specific options, see mysql_config_editor Commands and Command-Specific Options.

Table 5.17 mysql_config_editor General Options

FormatDescription
--debug Write debugging log
--helpDisplay help message and exit
--verboseVerbose mode
--versionDisplay version information and exit
  • --help, -?

    Display a general help message and exit.

    To see a command-specific help message, invoke mysql_config_editor as follows, where command is a command other than help:

    shell> mysql_config_editor command --help
    
  • --debug[= debug_options], -# debug_options

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysql_config_editor.trace.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does. This option may be helpful in diagnosing problems if an operation does not have the effect you expect.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

mysql_config_editor Commands and Command-Specific Options

This раздел describes the permitted mysql_config_editor commands, and, for each one, the command-specific options permitted following the command name on the command line.

In addition, mysql_config_editor supports general options that can be used preceding any command. For descriptions of these options, see mysql_config_editor General Options.

mysql_config_editor supports these commands:

  • help

    Display a general help message and exit. This command takes no following options.

    To see a command-specific help message, invoke mysql_config_editor as follows, where command is a command other than help:

    shell> mysql_config_editor command --help
    
  • print [options]

    Print the contents of the login path file in unencrypted form, with the exception that passwords are displayed as *****.

    The default login path name is client if no login path is named. If both --all and --login-path are given, --all takes precedence.

    The print command permits these options following the command name:

    • --help, -?

      Display a help message for the print command and exit.

      To see a general help message, use mysql_config_editor --help.

    • --all

      Print the contents of all login paths in the login path file.

    • --login-path=name, -G name

      Print the contents of the named login path.

  • remove [options]

    Remove a login path from the login path file, or modify a login path by removing options from it.

    This command removes from the login path only such options as are specified with the --host, --password, --port, --socket, and --user options. If none of those options are given, remove removes the entire login path. For example, this command removes only the user option from the mypath login path rather than the entire mypath login path:

    shell> mysql_config_editor remove --login-path=mypath --user
    
    This command removes the entire mypath login path:
    shell> mysql_config_editor remove --login-path=mypath
    
    The remove command permits these options following the command name:

    • --help, -?

      Display a help message for the remove command and exit.

      To see a general help message, use mysql_config_editor --help.

    • --host, -h

      Remove the host name from the login path.

    • --login-path=name, -G name

      The login path to remove or modify. The default login path name is client if this option is not given.

    • --password, -p

      Remove the password from the login path.

    • --port, -P

      Remove the TCP/IP port number from the login path.

    • --socket, -S

      Remove the Unix socket file name from the login path.

    • --user, -u

      Remove the user name from the login path.

    • --warn, -w

      Warn and prompt the user for confirmation if the command attempts to remove the default login path (client) and --login-path=client was not specified. This option is enabled by default; use --skip-warn to disable it.

  • reset [options]

    Empty the contents of the login path file.

    The reset command permits these options following the command name:

  • set [options]

    Write a login path to the login path file.

    This command writes to the login path only such options as are specified with the --host, --password, --port, --socket, and --user options. If none of those options are given, mysql_config_editor writes the login path as an empty group.

    The set command permits these options following the command name:

    • --help, -?

      Display a help message for the set command and exit.

      To see a general help message, use mysql_config_editor --help.

    • --host=host_name, -h host_name

      The host name to write to the login path.

    • --login-path=name, -G name

      The login path to create. The default login path name is client if this option is not given.

    • --password, -p

      Prompt for a password to write to the login path. After mysql_config_editor displays the prompt, type the password and press Enter. To prevent other users from seeing the password, mysql_config_editor does not echo it.

      To specify an empty password, press Enter at the password prompt. The resulting login path written to the login path file will include a line like this:

      password =
      
    • --port=port_num, -P port_num

      The TCP/IP port number to write to the login path.

    • --socket=file_name, -S file_name

      The Unix socket file name to write to the login path.

    • --user=user_name, -u user_name

      The user name to write to the login path.

    • --warn, -w

      Warn and prompt the user for confirmation if the command attempts to overwrite an existing login path. This option is enabled by default; use --skip-warn to disable it.

5.6.8 mysqlbinlog Б─■ Utility for Processing Binary Log Files

The server's binary log consists of files containing events that describe modifications to database contents. The server writes these files in binary format. To display their contents in text format, use the mysqlbinlog utility. You can also use mysqlbinlog to display the contents of relay log files written by a slave server in a replication setup because relay logs have the same format as binary logs. The binary log and relay log are discussed further in раздел 6.4.4, and раздел 19.2.4.

Invoke mysqlbinlog like this:

shell> mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...
For example, to display the contents of the binary log file named binlog.000003, use this command:
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.0000003
The output includes events contained in binlog.000003. For statement-based logging, event information includes the SQL statement, the ID of the server on which it was executed, the timestamp when the statement was executed, how much time it took, and so forth. For row-based logging, the event indicates a row change rather than an SQL statement. See раздел 19.2.1, Replication Formats, for information about logging modes.

Events are preceded by header comments that provide additional information. For example:

# at 141
#100309  9:28:36 server id 123  end_log_pos 245
  Query thread_id=3350  exec_time=11  error_code=0
In the first line, the number following at indicates the file offset, or starting position, of the event in the binary log file.

The second line starts with a date and time indicating when the statement started on the server where the event originated. For replication, this timestamp is propagated to slave servers. server id is the server_id value of the server where the event originated. end_log_pos indicates where the next event starts (that is, it is the end position of the current event + 1). thread_id indicates which thread executed the event. exec_time is the time spent executing the event, on a master server. On a slave, it is the difference of the end execution time on the slave minus the beginning execution time on the master. The difference serves as an indicator of how much replication lags behind the master. error_code indicates the result from executing the event. Zero means that no error occurred.

When using event groups, the file offsets of events may be grouped together and the comments of events may be grouped together. Do not mistake these grouped events for blank file offsets.

The output from mysqlbinlog can be re-executed (for example, by using it as input to mysql) to redo the statements in the log. This is useful for recovery operations after a server crash. For other usage examples, see the discussion later in this раздел and in раздел 8.5.

Normally, you use mysqlbinlog to read binary log files directly and apply them to the local MySQL server. It is also possible to read binary logs from a remote server by using the --read-from-remote-server option. To read remote binary logs, the connection parameter options can be given to indicate how to connect to the server. These options are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user; they are ignored except when you also use the --read-from-remote-server option.

When running mysqlbinlog against a large binary log, be careful that the filesystem has enough space for the resulting files. To configure the directory that mysqlbinlog uses for temporary files, use the TMPDIR environment variable.

mysqlbinlog supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlbinlog] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see раздел 5.2.6 .

Table 5.18 mysqlbinlog Options

FormatDescription
--base64-outputPrint binary log entries using base-64 encoding
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server
--binlog-row-event-max-sizeBinary log max event size
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed
--connection-server-idUsed for testing and debugging. See text for applicable default values and other particulars.
--databaseList entries for just this database
--debugWrite debugging log
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-fileRead only named option file
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value
--disable-log-binDisable binary logging
--exclude-gtidsDo not show any of the groups in the GTID set provided
--force-if-openRead binary log files even if open or not closed properly
--force-readIf mysqlbinlog reads a binary log event that it does not recognize, it prints a warning
--help Display help message and exit
--hexdumpDisplay a hex dump of the log in comments
--hostConnect to MySQL server on given host
--idempotentCause the server to use idempotent mode while processing binary log updates from this session only
--include-gtidsShow only the groups in the GTID set provided
--local-loadPrepare local temporary files for LOAD DATA INFILE in the specified directory
--login-pathRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf
--no-defaultsRead no option files
--offset Skip the first N entries in the log
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed
--port TCP/IP port number to use for connection
--print-defaultsPrint default options
--protocolConnection protocol to use
--raw Write events in raw (binary) format to output files
--read-from-remote-masterRead the binary log from a MySQL master rather than reading a local log file
--read-from-remote-serverRead binary log from MySQL server rather than local log file
--result-fileDirect output to named file
--rewrite-dbCreate rewrite rules for databases when playing back from logs written in row-based format. Can be used multiple times.
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format
--server-idExtract only those events created by the server having the given server ID
--server-id-bitsTell mysqlbinlog how to interpret server IDs in binary log when log was written by a mysqld having its server-id-bits set to less than the maximum; supported only by MySQL Cluster version of mysqlbinlog
--set-charsetAdd a SET NAMES charset_name statement to the output
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections
--short-formDisplay only the statements contained in the log
--skip-gtidsDo not print any GTIDs; use this when writing a dump file from binary logs containing GTIDs.
--socket For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use
--ssl-ca Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs
--ssl-capathPath of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format
--ssl-certPath of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format
--ssl-cipherList of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption
--ssl-crlPath of file that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpathPath of directory that contains certificate revocation list files
--ssl-keyPath of file that contains X509 key in PEM format
--ssl-modeSecurity state of connection to server
--start-datetimeRead binary log from first event with timestamp equal to or later than datetime argument
--start-positionRead binary log from first event with position equal to or greater than argument
--stop-datetimeStop reading binary log at first event with timestamp equal to or greater than datetime argument
--stop-neverStay connected to server after reading last binary log file
--stop-never-slave-server-idSlave server ID to report when connecting to server
--stop-positionStop reading binary log at first event with position equal to or greater than argument
--tls-versionProtocols permitted for secure connections
--to-last-logDo not stop at the end of requested binary log from a MySQL server, but rather continue printing to end of last binary log
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server
--verboseReconstruct row events as SQL statements
--verify-binlog-checksumVerify checksums in binary log
--versionDisplay version information and exit
  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --base64-output=value

    This option determines when events should be displayed encoded as base-64 strings using BINLOG statements. The option has these permissible values (not case sensitive):

    • AUTO ("automatic") or UNSPEC ("unspecified") displays BINLOG statements automatically when necessary (that is, for format description events and row events). If no --base64-output option is given, the effect is the same as --base64-output=AUTO.

      Automatic BINLOG display is the only safe behavior if you intend to use the output of mysqlbinlog to re-execute binary log file contents. The other option values are intended only for debugging or testing purposes because they may produce output that does not include all events in executable form.

    • NEVER causes BINLOG statements not to be displayed. mysqlbinlog exits with an error if a row event is found that must be displayed using BINLOG.

    • DECODE-ROWS specifies to mysqlbinlog that you intend for row events to be decoded and displayed as commented SQL statements by also specifying the --verbose option. Like NEVER, DECODE-ROWS suppresses display of BINLOG statements, but unlike NEVER, it does not exit with an error if a row event is found.

    For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose on row event output, see раздел 5.6.8.2.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

  • --binlog-row-event-max-size=N

    Command-Line Format --binlog-row-event-max-size=#
    Permitted Values (64-bit platforms)Type numeric
    Default 4294967040
    Min Value 256
    Max Value 18446744073709547520

    Specify the maximum size of a row-based binary log event, in bytes. Rows are grouped into events smaller than this size if possible. The value should be a multiple of 256. The default is 4GB.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See раздел 11.5.

  • --connection-server-id=server_id

    This option is used to test a MySQL server for support of the BINLOG_DUMP_NON_BLOCK connection flag, which was inadvertently removed in MySQL 5.6.5, and restored in MySQL 5.7.5 (Bug #18000079, Bug #71178). It is not required for normal operations.

    The effective default and minimum values for this option depend on whether mysqlbinlog is run in blocking mode or non-blocking mode. When mysqlbinlog is run in blocking mode, the default (and minimum) value is 1; when run in non-blocking mode, the default (and minimum) value is 0.

  • --database=db_name, -d db_name

    This option causes mysqlbinlog to output entries from the binary log (local log only) that occur while db_name is been selected as the default database by USE.

    The --database option for mysqlbinlog is similar to the --binlog-do-db option for mysqld, but can be used to specify only one database. If --database is given multiple times, only the last instance is used.

    The effects of this option depend on whether the statement-based or row-based logging format is in use, in the same way that the effects of --binlog-do-db depend on whether statement-based or row-based logging is in use.

    Statement-based logging. The --database option works as follows:

    • While db_name is the default database, statements are output whether they modify tables in db_name or a different database.

    • Unless db_name is selected as the default database, statements are not output, even if they modify tables in db_name.
    • There is an exception for CREATE DATABASE, ALTER DATABASE, and DROP DATABASE. The database being created, altered, or dropped is considered to be the default database when determining whether to output the statement.

    Suppose that the binary log was created by executing these statements using statement-based-logging:

    INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(100);
    INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(200);
    USE test;
    INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(101);
    INSERT INTO t1 (i)VALUES(102);
    INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(201);
    USE db2;
    INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(103);
    INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(202);
    INSERT INTO t2 (j)VALUES(203);
    
    mysqlbinlog --database=test does not output the first two INSERT statements because there is no default database. It outputs the three INSERT statements following USE test, but not the three INSERT statements following USE db2.

    mysqlbinlog --database=db2 does not output the first two INSERT statements because there is no default database. It does not output the three INSERT statements following USE test, but does output the three INSERT statements following USE db2.

    Row-based logging. mysqlbinlog outputs only entries that change tables belonging to db_name. The default database has no effect on this. Suppose that the binary log just described was created using row-based logging rather than statement-based logging. mysqlbinlog --database=test outputs only those entries that modify t1 in the test database, regardless of whether USE was issued or what the default database is.

    If a server is running with binlog_format set to MIXED and you want it to be possible to use mysqlbinlog with the --database option, you must ensure that tables that are modified are in the database selected by USE. (In particular, no cross-database updates should be used.)

    When used together with the --rewrite-db option, the --rewrite-db option is applied first; then the --database option is applied, using the rewritten database name. The order in which the options are provided makes no difference in this regard.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysqlbinlog.trace.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

    Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqlbinlog normally reads the [client] and [mysqlbinlog] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqlbinlog also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlbinlog_other] groups.

  • --disable-log-bin, -D

    Disable binary logging. This is useful for avoiding an endless loop if you use the --to-last-log option and are sending the output to the same MySQL server. This option also is useful when restoring after a crash to avoid duplication of the statements you have logged.

    This option requires that you have the SUPER privilege. It causes mysqlbinlog to include a SET sql_log_bin = 0 statement in its output to disable binary logging of the remaining output. The SET statement is ineffective unless you have the SUPER privilege.

  • --exclude-gtids=gtid_set

    Do not display any of the groups listed in the gtid_set.

  • --force-if-open, -F

    Read binary log files even if they are open or were not closed properly.

  • --force-read, -f

    With this option, if mysqlbinlog reads a binary log event that it does not recognize, it prints a warning, ignores the event, and continues. Without this option, mysqlbinlog stops if it reads such an event.

  • --hexdump, -H

    Display a hex dump of the log in comments, as described in раздел 5.6.8.1, mysqlbinlog Hex Dump Format. The hex output can be helpful for replication debugging.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Get the binary log from the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --idempotent

    Tell the MySQL Server to use idempotent mode while processing updates; this causes suppression of any duplicate-key or key-not-found errors that the server encounters in the current session while processing updates. This option may prove useful whenever it is desirable or necessary to replay one or more binary logs to a MySQL Server which may not contain all of the data to which the logs refer.

    The scope of effect for this option includes the current mysqlbinlog client and session only.

  • --include-gtids=gtid_set

    Display only the groups listed in the gtid_set.

  • --local-load=dir_name, -l dir_name

    Prepare local temporary files for LOAD DATA INFILE in the specified directory.

    These temporary files are not automatically removed by mysqlbinlog or any other MySQL program.

  • --login-path=name

    Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A login path is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See раздел 5.6.7.)

  • --offset=N, -o N

    Skip the first N entries in the log.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlbinlog prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlbinlog does not find it. See раздел 7.3.9.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for connecting to a remote server.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see раздел 5.2.2.

  • --raw

    By default, mysqlbinlog reads binary log files and writes events in text format. The --raw option tells mysqlbinlog to write them in their original binary format. Its use requires that --read-from-remote-server also be used because the files are requested from a server. mysqlbinlog writes one output file for each file read from the server. The --raw option can be used to make a backup of a server's binary log. With the --stop-never option, the backup is live because mysqlbinlog stays connected to the server. By default, output files are written in the current directory with the same names as the original log files. Output file names can be modified using the --result-file option. For more information, see раздел 5.6.8.3.

  • --read-from-remote-master=type

    Read binary logs from a MySQL server with the COM_BINLOG_DUMP or COM_BINLOG_DUMP_GTID commands by setting the option value to either BINLOG-DUMP-NON-GTIDS or BINLOG-DUMP-GTIDS, respectively. If --read-from-remote-master=BINLOG-DUMP-GTIDS is combined with --exclude-gtids, transactions can be filtered out on the master, avoiding unnecessary network traffic.

    See also the description for --read-from-remote-server.

  • --read-from-remote-server, -R

    Read the binary log from a MySQL server rather than reading a local log file. Any connection parameter options are ignored unless this option is given as well. These options are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user.

    This option requires that the remote server be running. It works only for binary log files on the remote server, not relay log files.

    This option is like --read-from-remote-master=BINLOG-DUMP-NON-GTIDS.

  • --result-file=name, -r name

    Without the --raw option, this option indicates the file to which mysqlbinlog writes text output. With --raw, mysqlbinlog writes one binary output file for each log file transferred from the server, writing them by default in the current directory using the same names as the original log file. In this case, the --result-file option value is treated as a prefix that modifies output file names.

  • --rewrite-db='from_name->to_name '

    When reading from a row-based or statement-based log, rewrite all occurrences of from_name to to_name. Rewriting is done on the rows, for row-based logs, as well as on the USE clauses, for statement-based logs.

    Statements in which table names are qualified with database names are not rewritten to use the new name when using this option.

    The rewrite rule employed as a value for this option is a string having the form 'from_name->to_name', as shown previously, and for this reason must be enclosed by quotation marks.

    To employ multiple rewrite rules, specify the option multiple times, as shown here:

    shell> mysqlbinlog --rewrite-db='dbcurrent->dbold'
                          --rewrite-db='dbtest->dbcurrent' \
                          binlog.00001 > /tmp/statements.sql
    
    When used together with the --database option, the --rewrite-db option is applied first; then --database option is applied, using the rewritten database name. The order in which the options are provided makes no difference in this regard.

    This means that, for example, if mysqlbinlog is started with --rewrite-db='mydb->yourdb' --database=yourdb, then all updates to any tables in databases mydb and yourdb are included in the output. On the other hand, if it is started with --rewrite-db='mydb->yourdb' --database=mydb, then mysqlbinlog outputs no statements at all: since all updates to mydb are first rewritten as updates to yourdb before applying the --database option, there remain no updates that match --database=mydb.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

    This option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.

    Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support for them has been removed.

  • --server-id=id

    Display only those events created by the server having the given server ID.

  • --set-charset=charset_name

    Add a SET NAMES charset_name statement to the output to specify the character set to be used for processing log files.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --short-form, -s

    Display only the statements contained in the log, without any extra information or row-based events. This is for testing only, and should not be used in production systems.

  • --skip-gtids[=(true|false)]

    Do not display any GTIDs in the output. This is needed when writing to a dump file from one or more binary logs containing GTIDs, as shown in this example:

    shell> mysqlbinlog --skip-gtids binlog.000001 >  /tmp/dump.sql
    shell> mysqlbinlog --skip-gtids binlog.000002 >> /tmp/dump.sql
    shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/dump.sql"
    
    The use of this option is otherwise not normally recommended in production.
  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See раздел 7.4.5.

  • --start-datetime=datetime

    Start reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp equal to or later than the datetime argument. The datetime value is relative to the local time zone on the machine where you run mysqlbinlog. The value should be in a format accepted for the DATETIME or TIMESTAMP data types. For example:

    shell> mysqlbinlog --start-datetime="2005-12-25 11:25:56" binlog.000003
    
    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See раздел 8.3.
  • --start-position=N, -j N

    Start reading the binary log at the first event having a position equal to or greater than N. This option applies to the first log file named on the command line.

    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See раздел 8.3.

  • --stop-datetime=datetime

    Stop reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp equal to or later than the datetime argument. This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See the description of the --start-datetime option for information about the datetime value.

    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See раздел 8.3.

  • --stop-never

    This option is used with --read-from-remote-server. It tells mysqlbinlog to remain connected to the server. Otherwise mysqlbinlog exits when the last log file has been transferred from the server. --stop-never implies --to-last-log, so only the first log file to transfer need be named on the command line.

    --stop-never is commonly used with --raw to make a live binary log backup, but also can be used without --raw to maintain a continuous text display of log events as the server generates them.

  • --stop-never-slave-server-id=id

    With --stop-never, mysqlbinlog reports a server ID of 65535 when it connects to the server. --stop-never-slave-server-id explicitly specifies the server ID to report. It can be used to avoid a conflict with the ID of a slave server or another mysqlbinlog process. See раздел 5.6.8.4.

  • --stop-position=N

    Stop reading the binary log at the first event having a position equal to or greater than N. This option applies to the last log file named on the command line.

    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See раздел 8.3.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see раздел 7.4.3.

  • --to-last-log, -t

    Do not stop at the end of the requested binary log from a MySQL server, but rather continue printing until the end of the last binary log. If you send the output to the same MySQL server, this may lead to an endless loop. This option requires --read-from-remote-server.

  • --user= user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to a remote server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Reconstruct row events and display them as commented SQL statements. If this option is given twice (by passing in either "-vv" or "--verbose --verbose"), the output includes comments to indicate column data types and some metadata, and row query log events if so configured.

    For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose on row event output, see раздел 5.6.8.2.

  • --verify-binlog-checksum, -c

    Verify checksums in binary log files.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

    The mysqlbinlog version number shown when using this option is 3.4.

You can also set the following variable by using --var_name=value syntax:

  • open_files_limit

    Specify the number of open file descriptors to reserve.

You can pipe the output of mysqlbinlog into the mysql client to execute the events contained in the binary log. This technique is used to recover from a crash when you have an old backup (see раздел 8.5). For example:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p
Or:
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.[0-9]* | mysql -u root -p
If the statements produced by mysqlbinlog may contain BLOB values, these may cause problems when mysql processes them. In this case, invoke mysql with the --binary-mode option.

You can also redirect the output of mysqlbinlog to a text file instead, if you need to modify the statement log first (for example, to remove statements that you do not want to execute for some reason). After editing the file, execute the statements that it contains by using it as input to the mysql program:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 > tmpfile
shell> ... edit tmpfile ...
shell> mysql -u root -p < tmpfile
When mysqlbinlog is invoked with the --start-position option, it displays only those events with an offset in the binary log greater than or equal to a given position (the given position must match the start of one event). It also has options to stop and start when it sees an event with a given date and time. This enables you to perform point-in-time recovery using the --stop-datetime option (to be able to say, for example, roll forward my databases to how they were today at 10:30 a.m.).

If you have more than one binary log to execute on the MySQL server, the safe method is to process them all using a single connection to the server. Here is an example that demonstrates what may be unsafe:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!
Processing binary logs this way using multiple connections to the server causes problems if the first log file contains a CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statement and the second log contains a statement that uses the temporary table. When the first mysql process terminates, the server drops the temporary table. When the second mysql process attempts to use the table, the server reports unknown table.

To avoid problems like this, use a single mysql process to execute the contents of all binary logs that you want to process. Here is one way to do so:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p
Another approach is to write all the logs to a single file and then process the file:
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 >  /tmp/statements.sql
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 >> /tmp/statements.sql
shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/statements.sql"
mysqlbinlog can produce output that reproduces a LOAD DATA INFILE operation without the original data file. mysqlbinlog copies the data to a temporary file and writes a LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statement that refers to the file. The default location of the directory where these files are written is system-specific. To specify a directory explicitly, use the --local-load option.

Because mysqlbinlog converts LOAD DATA INFILE statements to LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statements (that is, it adds LOCAL), both the client and the server that you use to process the statements must be configured with the LOCAL capability enabled. See раздел 7.1.6.

The temporary files created for LOAD DATA LOCAL statements are not automatically deleted because they are needed until you actually execute those statements. You should delete the temporary files yourself after you no longer need the statement log. The files can be found in the temporary file directory and have names like original_file_name-#-#.

5.6.8.1 mysqlbinlog Hex Dump Format

The --hexdump option causes mysqlbinlog to produce a hex dump of the binary log contents:

shell> mysqlbinlog --hexdump master-bin.000001
The hex output consists of comment lines beginning with #, so the output might look like this for the preceding command:
/*!40019 SET @@session.max_insert_delayed_threads=0*/;
/*!50003 SET @OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE=@@COMPLETION_TYPE,COMPLETION_TYPE=0*/;
# at 4
#051024 17:24:13 server id 1  end_log_pos 98
# Position  Timestamp   Type   Master ID SizeMaster PosFlags
# 00000004 9d fc 5c 43   0f   01 00 00 00   5e 00 00 00   62 00 00 00   00 00
# 00000017 04 00 35 2e 30 2e 31 35  2d 64 65 62 75 67 2d 6c |..5.0.15.debug.l|
# 00000027 6f 67 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |og..............|
# 00000037 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |................|
# 00000047 00 00 00 00 9d fc 5c 43  13 38 0d 00 08 00 12 00 |.......C.8......|
# 00000057 04 04 04 04 12 00 00 4b  00 04 1a|.......K...|
# Start: binlog v 4, server v 5.0.15-debug-log created 051024 17:24:13
# at startup
ROLLBACK;
Hex dump output currently contains the elements in the following list. This format is subject to change. (For more information about binary log format, see MySQL Internals: The Binary Log.

  • Position: The byte position within the log file.

  • Timestamp: The event timestamp. In the example shown, '9d fc 5c 43' is the representation of '051024 17:24:13' in hexadecimal.
  • Type: The event type code. In the example shown, '0f' indicates a FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT. The following table lists the possible type codes.

    TypeName Meaning
    00UNKNOWN_EVENT This event should never be present in the log.
    01START_EVENT_V3 This indicates the start of a log file written by MySQL 4 or earlier.
    02QUERY_EVENT The most common type of events. These contain statements executed on the master.
    03STOP_EVENT Indicates that master has stopped.
    04ROTATE_EVENT Written when the master switches to a new log file.
    05INTVAR_EVENT Used for AUTO_INCREMENT values or when the LAST_INSERT_ID() function is used in the statement.
    06LOAD_EVENT Used for LOAD DATA INFILE in MySQL 3.23.
    07SLAVE_EVENT Reserved for future use.
    08CREATE_FILE_EVENT Used for LOAD DATA INFILE statements. This indicates the start of execution of such a statement. A temporary file is created on the slave. Used in MySQL 4 only.
    09APPEND_BLOCK_EVENT Contains data for use in a LOAD DATA INFILE statement. The data is stored in the temporary file on the slave.
    0aEXEC_LOAD_EVENT Used for LOAD DATA INFILE statements. The contents of the temporary file is stored in the table on the slave. Used in MySQL 4 only.
    0bDELETE_FILE_EVENT Rollback of a LOAD DATA INFILE statement. The temporary file should be deleted on the slave.
    0cNEW_LOAD_EVENT Used for LOAD DATA INFILE in MySQL 4 and earlier.
    0dRAND_EVENT Used to send information about random values if the RAND() function is used in the statement.
    0eUSER_VAR_EVENT Used to replicate user variables.
    0fFORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT This indicates the start of a log file written by MySQL 5 or later.
    10XID_EVENT Event indicating commit of an XA transaction.
    11BEGIN_LOAD_QUERY_EVENT Used for LOAD DATA INFILE statements in MySQL 5 and later.
    12EXECUTE_LOAD_QUERY_EVENT Used for LOAD DATA INFILE statements in MySQL 5 and later.
    13TABLE_MAP_EVENT Information about a table definition. Used in MySQL 5.1.5 and later.
    14PRE_GA_WRITE_ROWS_EVENT Row data for a single table that should be created. Used in MySQL 5.1.5 to 5.1.17.
    15PRE_GA_UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT Row data for a single table that needs to be updated. Used in MySQL 5.1.5 to 5.1.17.
    16PRE_GA_DELETE_ROWS_EVENT Row data for a single table that should be deleted. Used in MySQL 5.1.5 to 5.1.17.
    17WRITE_ROWS_EVENT Row data for a single table that should be created. Used in MySQL 5.1.18 and later.
    18UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT Row data for a single table that needs to be updated. Used in MySQL 5.1.18 and later.
    19DELETE_ROWS_EVENT Row data for a single table that should be deleted. Used in MySQL 5.1.18 and later.
    1aINCIDENT_EVENT Something out of the ordinary happened. Added in MySQL 5.1.18.
  • Master ID: The server ID of the master that created the event.

  • Size: The size in bytes of the event.
  • Master Pos: The position of the next event in the original master log file.
  • Flags: 16 flags. The following flags are used. The others are reserved for future use.

    FlagName Meaning
    01 LOG_EVENT_BINLOG_IN_USE_F Log file correctly closed. (Used only in FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT.) If this flag is set (if the flags are, for example, '01 00') in a FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT, the log file has not been properly closed. Most probably this is because of a master crash (for example, due to power failure).
    02 Reserved for future use.
    04LOG_EVENT_THREAD_SPECIFIC_FSet if the event is dependent on the connection it was executed in (for example, '04 00'), for example, if the event uses temporary tables.
    08LOG_EVENT_SUPPRESS_USE_FSet in some circumstances when the event is not dependent on the default database.

5.6.8.2 mysqlbinlog Row Event Display

The following examples illustrate how mysqlbinlog displays row events that specify data modifications. These correspond to events with the WRITE_ROWS_EVENT, UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT, and DELETE_ROWS_EVENT type codes. The --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose options may be used to affect row event output.

Suppose that the server is using row-based binary logging and that you execute the following sequence of statements:

CREATE TABLE t (id INT NOT NULL, name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
                date DATE NULL) ENGINE = InnoDB;
START TRANSACTION;
INSERT INTO t VALUES(1, 'apple', NULL);
UPDATE t SET name = 'pear', date = '2009-01-01' WHERE id = 1;
DELETE FROM t WHERE id = 1;
COMMIT;
By default, mysqlbinlog displays row events encoded as base-64 strings using BINLOG statements. Omitting extraneous lines, the output for the row events produced by the preceding statement sequence looks like this:
shell> mysqlbinlog log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
'/*!*/;
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
'/*!*/;
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
'/*!*/;
To see the row events as comments in the form of pseudo-SQL statements, run mysqlbinlog with the --verbose or -v option. The output will contain lines beginning with ###:
shell> mysqlbinlog -v log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
'/*!*/;
### INSERT INTO test.t
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2='apple'
###   @3=NULL
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
'/*!*/;
### UPDATE test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2='apple'
###   @3=NULL
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2='pear'
###   @3='2009:01:01'
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
'/*!*/;
### DELETE FROM test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2='pear'
###   @3='2009:01:01'
Specify --verbose or -v twice to also display data types and some metadata for each column. The output will contain an additional comment following each column change:
shell> mysqlbinlog -vv log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
'/*!*/;
### INSERT INTO test.t
### SET
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2='apple' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
'/*!*/;
### UPDATE test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2='apple' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
### SET
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2='pear' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3='2009:01:01' /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
'/*!*/;
### DELETE FROM test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @2='pear' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
###   @3='2009:01:01' /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */
You can tell mysqlbinlog to suppress the BINLOG statements for row events by using the --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS option. This is similar to --base64-output=NEVER but does not exit with an error if a row event is found. The combination of --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose provides a convenient way to see row events only as SQL statements:
shell> mysqlbinlog -v --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS log_file
...
# at 218
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
### INSERT INTO test.t
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2='apple'
###   @3=NULL
...
# at 302
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
### UPDATE test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2='apple'
###   @3=NULL
### SET
###   @1=1
###   @2='pear'
###   @3='2009:01:01'
...
# at 400
#080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
### DELETE FROM test.t
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2='pear'
###   @3='2009:01:01'

You should not suppress BINLOG statements if you intend to re-execute mysqlbinlog output.

The SQL statements produced by --verbose for row events are much more readable than the corresponding BINLOG statements. However, they do not correspond exactly to the original SQL statements that generated the events. The following limitations apply:

  • The original column names are lost and replaced by @N, where N is a column number.

  • Character set information is not available in the binary log, which affects string column display:

    • There is no distinction made between corresponding binary and nonbinary string types (BINARY and CHAR, VARBINARY and VARCHAR, BLOB and TEXT). The output uses a data type of STRING for fixed-length strings and VARSTRING for variable-length strings.

    • For multibyte character sets, the maximum number of bytes per character is not present in the binary log, so the length for string types is displayed in bytes rather than in characters. For example, STRING(4) will be used as the data type for values from either of these column types:
      CHAR(4) CHARACTER SET latin1
      CHAR(2) CHARACTER SET ucs2
      
    • Due to the storage format for events of type UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT, UPDATE statements are displayed with the WHERE clause preceding the SET clause.

Proper interpretation of row events requires the information from the format description event at the beginning of the binary log. Because mysqlbinlog does not know in advance whether the rest of the log contains row events, by default it displays the format description event using a BINLOG statement in the initial part of the output.

If the binary log is known not to contain any events requiring a BINLOG statement (that is, no row events), the --base64-output=NEVER option can be used to prevent this header from being written.

5.6.8.3 Using mysqlbinlog to Back Up Binary Log Files

By default, mysqlbinlog reads binary log files and displays their contents in text format. This enables you to examine events within the files more easily and to re-execute them (for example, by using the output as input to mysql). mysqlbinlog can read log files directly from the local file system, or, with the --read-from-remote-server option, it can connect to a server and request binary log contents from that server. mysqlbinlog writes text output to its standard output, or to the file named as the value of the --result-file=file_name option if that option is given.

mysqlbinlog can read binary log files and write new files containing the same contentБ─■that is, in binary format rather than text format. This capability enables you to easily back up a binary log in its original format. mysqlbinlog can make a static backup, backing up a set of log files and stopping when the end of the last file is reached. It can also make a continuous (live) backup, staying connected to the server when it reaches the end of the last log file and continuing to copy new events as they are generated. In continuous-backup operation, mysqlbinlog runs until the connection ends (for example, when the server exits) or mysqlbinlog is forcibly terminated. When the connection ends, mysqlbinlog does not wait and retry the connection, unlike a slave replication server. To continue a live backup after the server has been restarted, you must also restart mysqlbinlog.

Binary log backup requires that you invoke mysqlbinlog with two options at minimum:

  • The --read-from-remote-server (or -R) option tells mysqlbinlog to connect to a server and request its binary log. (This is similar to a slave replication server connecting to its master server.)

  • The --raw option tells mysqlbinlog to write raw (binary) output, not text output.

Along with --read-from-remote-server, it is common to specify other options: --host indicates where the server is running, and you may also need to specify connection options such as --user and --password.

Several other options are useful in conjunction with --raw:

To back up a server's binary log files with mysqlbinlog, you must specify file names that actually exist on the server. If you do not know the names, connect to the server and use the SHOW BINARY LOGS statement to see the current names. Suppose that the statement produces this output:

mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
+---------------+-----------+
| Log_name      | File_size |
+---------------+-----------+
| binlog.000130 | 27459     |
| binlog.000131 | 13719     |
| binlog.000132 | 43268     |
+---------------+-----------+
With that information, you can use mysqlbinlog to back up the binary log to the current directory as follows (enter each command on a single line):

  • To make a static backup of binlog.000130 through binlog.000132, use either of these commands:

    mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name --raw
                binlog.000130 binlog.000131 binlog.000132
    mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name --raw
                --to-last-log binlog.000130
    
    The first command specifies every file name explicitly. The second names only the first file and uses --to-last-log to read through the last. A difference between these commands is that if the server happens to open binlog.000133 before mysqlbinlog reaches the end of binlog.000132, the first command will not read it, but the second command will.
  • To make a live backup in which mysqlbinlog starts with binlog.000130 to copy existing log files, then stays connected to copy new events as the server generates them:
    mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name --raw
                --stop-never binlog.000130
    
    With --stop-never, it is not necessary to specify --to-last-log to read to the last log file because that option is implied.

Output File Naming

Without --raw, mysqlbinlog produces text output and the --result-file option, if given, specifies the name of the single file to which all output is written. With --raw, mysqlbinlog writes one binary output file for each log file transferred from the server. By default, mysqlbinlog writes the files in the current directory with the same names as the original log files. To modify the output file names, use the --result-file option. In conjunction with --raw, the --result-file option value is treated as a prefix that modifies the output file names.

Suppose that a server currently has binary log files named binlog.000999 and up. If you use mysqlbinlog --raw to back up the files, the --result-file option produces output file names as shown in the following table. You can write the files to a specific directory by beginning the --result-file value with the directory path. If the --result-file value consists only of a directory name, the value must end with the pathname separator character. Output files are overwritten if they exist.

--result-file OptionOutput File Names
--result-file=x xbinlog.000999 and up
--result-file=/tmp/ /tmp/binlog.000999 and up
--result-file=/tmp/x /tmp/xbinlog.000999 and up
Example: mysqldump + mysqlbinlog for Backup and Restore

The following example describes a simple scenario that shows how to use mysqldump and mysqlbinlog together to back up a server's data and binary log, and how to use the backup to restore the server if data loss occurs. The example assumes that the server is running on host host_name and its first binary log file is named binlog.000999. Enter each command on a single line.

Use mysqlbinlog to make a continuous backup of the binary log:

mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name
            --raw --stop-never binlog.000999
Use mysqldump to create a dump file as a snapshot of the server's data. Use --all-databases, --events, and --routines to back up all data, and --master-data=2 to include the current binary log coordinates in the dump file.
mysqldump --host=host_name --all-databases --events --routines --master-data=2> em>dump_file
Execute the mysqldump command periodically to create newer snapshots as desired.

If data loss occurs (for example, if the server crashes), use the most recent dump file to restore the data:

mysql --host=host_name -u root -p < dump_file
Then use the binary log backup to re-execute events that were written after the coordinates listed in the dump file. Suppose that the coordinates in the file look like this:
-- CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE='binlog.001002', MASTER_LOG_POS=27284;
If the most recent backed-up log file is named binlog.001004, re-execute the log events like this:
mysqlbinlog --start-position=27284 binlog.001002 binlog.001003 binlog.001004
            | mysql --host=host_name -u root -p
You might find it easier to copy the backup files (dump file and binary log files) to the server host to make it easier to perform the restore operation, or if MySQL does not allow remote root access.

5.6.8.4 Specifying the mysqlbinlog Server ID

When invoked with the --read-from-remote-server option, mysqlbinlog connects to a MySQL server, specifies a server ID to identify itself, and requests binary log files from the server. You can use mysqlbinlog to request log files from a server in several ways:

  • Specify an explicitly named set of files: For each file, mysqlbinlog connects and issues a Binlog dump command. The server sends the file and disconnects. There is one connection per file.

  • Specify the beginning file and --to-last-log: mysqlbinlog connects and issues a Binlog dump command for all files. The server sends all files and disconnects.
  • Specify the beginning file and --stop-never (which implies --to-last-log): mysqlbinlog connects and issues a Binlog dump command for all files. The server sends all files, but does not disconnect after sending the last one.

With --read-from-remote-server only, mysqlbinlog connects using a server ID of 0, which tells the server to disconnect after sending the last requested log file.

With --read-from-remote-server and --stop-never, mysqlbinlog connects using a nonzero server ID, so the server does not disconnect after sending the last log file. The server ID is 65535 by default, but this can be changed with --stop-never-slave-server-id.

Thus, for the first two ways of requesting files, the server disconnects because mysqlbinlog specifies a server ID of 0. It does not disconnect if --stop-never is given because mysqlbinlog specifies a nonzero server ID.

5.6.9 mysqldumpslow Б─■ Summarize Slow Query Log Files

The MySQL slow query log contains information about queries that take a long time to execute (see раздел 6.4.5, The Slow Query Log). mysqldumpslow parses MySQL slow query log files and prints a summary of their contents.

Normally, mysqldumpslow groups queries that are similar except for the particular values of number and string data values. It abstracts these values to N and 'S' when displaying summary output. The -a and -n options can be used to modify value abstracting behavior.

Invoke mysqldumpslow like this:

shell> mysqldumpslow [options] [log_file ...]
mysqldumpslow supports the following options.

Table 5.19 mysqldumpslow Options

FormatDescription
-a Do not abstract all numbers to N and strings to S
-n Abstract numbers with at least the specified digits
--debug Write debugging information
-g Only consider statements that match the pattern
--help Display help message and exit
-h Host name of the server in the log file name
-i Name of the server instance
-l Do not subtract lock time from total time
-r Reverse the sort order
-s How to sort output
-t Display only first num queries
--verboseVerbose mode
  • --help

    Display a help message and exit.

  • -a

    Do not abstract all numbers to N and strings to 'S'.

  • --debug, -d

    Run in debug mode.

  • -g pattern

    Consider only queries that match the (grep-style) pattern.

  • -h host_name

    Host name of MySQL server for *-slow.log file name. The value can contain a wildcard. The default is * (match all).

  • -i name

    Name of server instance (if using mysql.server startup script).

  • -l

    Do not subtract lock time from total time.

  • -n N

    Abstract numbers with at least N digits within names.

  • -r

    Reverse the sort order.

  • -s sort_type

    How to sort the output. The value of sort_type should be chosen from the following list:

    • t, at: Sort by query time or average query time

    • l, al: Sort by lock time or average lock time
    • r, ar: Sort by rows sent or average rows sent
    • c: Sort by count

    By default, mysqldumpslow sorts by average query time (equivalent to -s at).

  • -t N

    Display only the first N queries in the output.

  • --verbose , -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

Example of usage:

shell> mysqldumpslow

Reading mysql slow query log from /usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld51-apple-slow.log
Count: 1  Time=4.32s (4s)  Lock=0.00s (0s)  Rows=0.0 (0), root[root]@localhost
 insert into t2 select * from t1

Count: 3  Time=2.53s (7s)  Lock=0.00s (0s)  Rows=0.0 (0), root[root]@localhost
 insert into t2 select * from t1 limit N

Count: 3  Time=2.13s (6s)  Lock=0.00s (0s)  Rows=0.0 (0), root[root]@localhost
 insert into t1 select * from t1

5.7 MySQL Program Development Utilities

This раздел describes some utilities that you may find useful when developing MySQL programs.

In shell scripts, you can use the my_print_defaults program to parse option files and see what options would be used by a given program. The following example shows the output that my_print_defaults might produce when asked to show the options found in the [client] and [mysql] groups:

shell> my_print_defaults client mysql
--port=3306
--socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
--no-auto-rehash
Note for developers: Option file handling is implemented in the C client library simply by processing all options in the appropriate group or groups before any command-line arguments. This works well for programs that use the last instance of an option that is specified multiple times. If you have a C or C++ program that handles multiply specified options this way but that doesn't read option files, you need add only two lines to give it that capability. Check the source code of any of the standard MySQL clients to see how to do this.

Several other language interfaces to MySQL are based on the C client library, and some of them provide a way to access option file contents. These include Perl and Python. For details, see the documentation for your preferred interface.

5.7.1 mysql_config Б─■ Display Options for Compiling Clients

mysql_config provides you with useful information for compiling your MySQL client and connecting it to MySQL. It is a shell script, so it is available only on Unix and Unix-like systems.

pkg-config can be used as an alternative to mysql_config for obtaining information such as compiler flags or link libraries required to compile MySQL applications. For more information, see раздел 25.8.4.2.

For binary distributions for Solaris, mysql_config does not provide arguments for linking with the embedded library. To get linking arguments for the embedded library, use the mysql_server_config script instead.

mysql_config supports the following options.

  • --cflags

    C Compiler flags to find include files and critical compiler flags and defines used when compiling the libmysqlclient library. The options returned are tied to the specific compiler that was used when the library was created and might clash with the settings for your own compiler. Use --include for more portable options that contain only include paths.

  • --cxxflags

    Like --cflags, but for C++ compiler flags.

  • --include

    Compiler options to find MySQL include files.

  • --libmysqld-libs, --embedded

    Libraries and options required to link with the MySQL embedded server.

  • --libs

    Libraries and options required to link with the MySQL client library.

  • --libs_r

    Libraries and options required to link with the thread-safe MySQL client library. In MySQL 8.0, all client libraries are thread-safe, so this option need not be used. The --libs option can be used in all cases.

  • --plugindir

    The default plugin directory path name, defined when configuring MySQL.

  • --port

    The default TCP/IP port number, defined when configuring MySQL.

  • --socket

    The default Unix socket file, defined when configuring MySQL.

  • --variable= var_name

    Display the value of the named configuration variable. Permitted var_name values are pkgincludedir (the header file directory), pkglibdir (the library directory), and plugindir (the plugin directory).

  • --version

    Version number for the MySQL distribution.

If you invoke mysql_config with no options, it displays a list of all options that it supports, and their values:

shell> mysql_config
Usage: /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config [options]
Options:
  --cflags [-I/usr/local/mysql/include/mysql -mcpu=pentiumpro]
  --cxxflags [-I/usr/local/mysql/include/mysql -mcpu=pentiumpro]
  --include[-I/usr/local/mysql/include/mysql]
  --libs   [-L/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient
   -lpthread -lm -lrt -lssl -lcrypto -ldl]
  --libs_r [-L/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient_r
   -lpthread -lm -lrt -lssl -lcrypto -ldl]
  --plugindir[/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin]
  --socket [/tmp/mysql.sock]
  --port   [3306]
  --version[5.8.0-m17]
  --libmysqld-libs [-L/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql -lmysqld
   -lpthread -lm -lrt -lssl -lcrypto -ldl -lcrypt]
  --variable=VAR   VAR is one of:
  pkgincludedir [/usr/local/mysql/include]
  pkglibdir [/usr/local/mysql/lib]
  plugindir [/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin]
You can use mysql_config within a command line using backticks to include the output that it produces for particular options. For example, to compile and link a MySQL client program, use mysql_config as follows:
gcc -c `mysql_config --cflags` progname.c
gcc -o progname progname.o `mysql_config --libs`

5.7.2 my_print_defaults Б─■ Display Options from Option Files

my_print_defaults displays the options that are present in option groups of option files. The output indicates what options will be used by programs that read the specified option groups. For example, the mysqlcheck program reads the [mysqlcheck] and [client] option groups. To see what options are present in those groups in the standard option files, invoke my_print_defaults like this:

shell> my_print_defaults mysqlcheck client
--user=myusername
--password=secret
--host=localhost
The output consists of options, one per line, in the form that they would be specified on the command line.

my_print_defaults supports the following options.

5.7.3 resolve_stack_dump Б─■ Resolve Numeric Stack Trace Dump to Symbols

resolve_stack_dump resolves a numeric stack dump to symbols.

Invoke resolve_stack_dump like this:

shell> resolve_stack_dump [options] symbols_file [numeric_dump_file]
The symbols file should include the output from the nm --numeric-sort mysqld command. The numeric dump file should contain a numeric stack track from mysqld. If no numeric dump file is named on the command line, the stack trace is read from the standard input.

resolve_stack_dump supports the following options.

For more information, see раздел 26.5.1.5.

5.8 Miscellaneous Programs

5.8.1 lz4_decompress Decompress mysqlpump LZ4-Compressed Output

The lz4_decompress utility decompresses mysqlpump output that was created using LZ4 compression.

If MySQL was configured with the -DWITH_LZ4=system option, lz4_decompress is not built. In this case, the system lz4 command can be used instead.

Invoke lz4_decompress like this:

shell> lz4_decompress input_file output_file
Example:
shell> mysqlpump --compress-output=LZ4 > dump.lz4
shell> lz4_decompress dump.lz4 dump.txt
To see a help message, invoke lz4_decompress with no arguments.

To decompress mysqlpump ZLIB-compressed output, use zlib_decompress. See раздел 5.8.5.

5.8.2 perror Б─■ Explain Error Codes

For most system errors, MySQL displays, in addition to an internal text message, the system error code in one of the following styles:

message ... (errno: #)
message ... (Errcode: #)
You can find out what the error code means by examining the documentation for your system or by using the perror utility.

perror prints a description for a system error code or for a storage engine (table handler) error code.

Invoke perror like this:

shell> perror [options] errorcode ...
Example:
shell> perror 13 64
OS error code  13:  Permission denied
OS error code  64:  Machine is not on the network
To obtain the error message for a MySQL Cluster error code, invoke perror with the --ndb option:
shell> perror --ndb errorcode
The meaning of system error messages may be dependent on your operating system. A given error code may mean different things on different operating systems.

perror supports the following options.

  • --help, --info, -I, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --ndb

    Print the error message for a MySQL Cluster error code.

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Print only the error message.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Print error code and message. This is the default behavior.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.8.3 replace Б─■ A String-Replacement Utility

The replace utility program changes strings in place in files or on the standard input.

Invoke replace in one of the following ways:

shell> replace from to [from to] ... -- file_name [file_name] ...
shell> replace from to [from to] ... < file_name
from represents a string to look for and to represents its replacement. There can be one or more pairs of strings.

Use the -- option to indicate where the string-replacement list ends and the file names begin. In this case, any file named on the command line is modified in place, so you may want to make a copy of the original before converting it. replace prints a message indicating which of the input files it actually modifies.

If the -- option is not given, replace reads the standard input and writes to the standard output.

replace uses a finite state machine to match longer strings first. It can be used to swap strings. For example, the following command swaps a and b in the given files, file1 and file2:

shell> replace a b b a -- file1 file2 ...
replace supports the following options.

  • -?, -I

    Display a help message and exit.

  • -#debug_options

    Enable debugging.

  • -s

    Silent mode. Print less information what the program does.

  • -v

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

  • -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.8.4 resolveip Б─■ Resolve Host name to IP Address or Vice Versa

The resolveip utility resolves host names to IP addresses and vice versa.

Invoke resolveip like this:

shell> resolveip [options] {host_name|ip-addr} ...
resolveip supports the following options.

  • --help, --info, -?, -I.

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Produce less output.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

5.8.5 zlib_decompress Б─■ Decompress mysqlpump ZLIB-Compressed Output

The zlib_decompress utility decompresses mysqlpump output that was created using ZLIB compression.

If MySQL was configured with the -DWITH_ZLIB=system option, zlib_decompress is not built. In this case, the system openssl zlib command can be used instead.

Invoke zlib_decompress like this:

shell> zlib_decompress input_file output_file
Example:
shell> mysqlpump --compress-output=ZLIB > dump.zlib
shell> zlib_decompress dump.zlib dump.txt
To see a help message, invoke zlib_decompress with no arguments.

To decompress mysqlpump LZ4-compressed output, use lz4_decompress. See раздел 5.8.1, lz4_decompress Б─■ Decompress mysqlpump LZ4-Compressed Output.

5.9 MySQL Program Environment Variables

This раздел lists environment variables that are used directly or indirectly by MySQL. Most of these can also be found in other places in this manual.

Options on the command line take precedence over values specified in option files and environment variables, and values in option files take precedence over values in environment variables. In many cases, it is preferable to use an option file instead of environment variables to modify the behavior of MySQL. See раздел 5.2.6.

VariableDescription
CXX The name of your C++ compiler (for running CMake).
CC The name of your C compiler (for running CMake).
DBI_USER The default user name for Perl DBI.
DBI_TRACE Trace options for Perl DBI.
HOME The default path for the mysql history file is $HOME/.mysql_history.
LD_RUN_PATH Used to specify the location of libmysqlclient.so.
LIBMYSQL_ENABLE_CLEARTEXT_PLUGIN Enable mysql_clear_password authentication plugin; see раздел 7.5.1.4.
LIBMYSQL_PLUGIN_DIRDirectory in which to look for client plugins.
LIBMYSQL_PLUGINSClient plugins to preload.
MYSQL_DEBUGDebug trace options when debugging.
MYSQL_GROUP_SUFFIXOption group suffix value (like specifying --defaults-group-suffix).
MYSQL_HISTFILEThe path to the mysql history file. If this variable is set, its value overrides the default for $HOME/.mysql_history.
MYSQL_HISTIGNOREPatterns specifying statements that mysql should not log to $HOME/.mysql_history, or syslog if --syslog is given.
MYSQL_HOMEThe path to the directory in which the server-specific my.cnf file resides.
MYSQL_HOSTThe default host name used by the mysql command-line client.
MYSQL_PS1The command prompt to use in the mysql command-line client.
MYSQL_PWDThe default password when connecting to mysqld. Using this is insecure. See раздел 7.1.2.1.
MYSQL_TCP_PORTThe default TCP/IP port number.
MYSQL_TEST_LOGIN_FILEThe name of the .mylogin.cnf login path file.
MYSQL_TEST_TRACE_CRASHWhether the test protocol trace plugin crashes clients. See note following table.
MYSQL_TEST_TRACE_DEBUGWhether the test protocol trace plugin produces output. See note following table.
MYSQL_UNIX_PORTThe default Unix socket file name; used for connections to localhost.
PATHUsed by the shell to find MySQL programs.
PKG_CONFIG_PATHLocation of mysqlclient.pc pkg-config file. See note following table.
TMPDIRThe directory in which temporary files are created.
TZThis should be set to your local time zone. See раздел B.5.3.7, Time Zone Problems.
UMASKThe user-file creation mode when creating files. See note following table.
UMASK_DIRThe user-directory creation mode when creating directories. See note following table.
USERThe default user name on Windows when connecting to mysqld.

For information about the mysql history file, see раздел 5.5.1.3.

MYSQL_TEST_LOGIN_FILE is the path name of the login path file (the file created by mysql_config_editor). If not set, the default value is %APPDATA%\MySQL\.mylogin.cnf directory on Windows and $HOME/.mylogin.cnf on non-Windows systems. See раздел 5.6.7.

The MYSQL_TEST_TRACE_DEBUG and MYSQL_TEST_TRACE_CRASH variables control the test protocol trace client plugin, if MySQL is built with that plugin enabled. For more information, see раздел 26.2.4.11.1.

The default UMASK and UMASK_DIR values are 0640 and 0750, respectively. MySQL assumes that the value for UMASK or UMASK_DIR is in octal if it starts with a zero. For example, setting UMASK=0600 is equivalent to UMASK=384 because 0600 octal is 384 decimal.

The UMASK and UMASK_DIR variables, despite their names, are used as modes, not masks:

  • If UMASK is set, mysqld uses ($UMASK | 0600) as the mode for file creation, so that newly created files have a mode in the range from 0600 to 0666 (all values octal).

  • If UMASK_DIR is set, mysqld uses ($UMASK_DIR | 0700) as the base mode for directory creation, which then is AND-ed with ~(~$UMASK & 0666), so that newly created directories have a mode in the range from 0700 to 0777 (all values octal). The AND operation may remove read and write permissions from the directory mode, but not execute permissions.

It may be necessary to set PKG_CONFIG_PATH if you use pkg-config for building MySQL programs. See раздел 25.8.4.2.

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