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釉 VI. 鹨商现盼裳

鹨商现盼膳 A. 笙着再, 遗讼团文撩缮 诹牧奚 聊蜕紊釉疑蚁琢紊

钆讼韵屹 酉着再 茉贤 伊谀盘 有琶善赊钨 奶 Linux-由釉磐. 庀特凵斡宰 邢娜夏稍 奶 子湃 UNIX-由釉磐.

踉商稍 du.

髻 拖峙耘 捎邢特谙琢载 赵商稍 du 奶 厦盼松 纳铀献锨 幸嫌砸廖釉琢, 诹紊土磐锨 屏侍镣. 盍幸赏乓, 拊下 闲遗呐躺载 伊谕乓 团橇铝试寥 肆粤滔窍 /var/log /home 捎邢特谡试 讼土文:

[root@deep /]# du -sh /var/log /home
3.5M       /var/log
350M       /home

邢臀稍, 拊 踪叟幸勺拍盼瘟 讼土文 邢肆峙 耘苏萆 伊谕乓 髁凵 牧挝偃. 笈兽劣, 瘟幸赏乓, 髻 遮瘟躺, 拊 /home 诹紊土旁 350M, 耘信邑 髻 拖峙耘 信遗试 孜赵邑 徘 闲遗呐躺载, 悄 伊有咸现盼 恿唾 孪特凵 屏侍:

[root@deep /]# cd /home
[root@deep /home]# du -sh *
343M     admin
11k      ftp
6.8M     httpd
12k      lost+found
6.0k     named
6.0k     smbclient
6.0k     test
8.0k     www

礤铋. 髻 拖峙耘 南铝咨载 茉 讼土文 髁 屏侍 crontab, 拊下 邢陶蘖载 显夼再 下 捎邢特谙琢紊 纳铀献锨 幸嫌砸廖釉琢 邢 邢拊.

鹣捎 土役艺粤, 邢 讼韵蚁驼 辛伺再 信遗淤塘涝友 髁叟窍 讼托乩耘伊 瘟 漳撂盼钨.

逵躺 髻 认陨耘 瘟试 土役艺, 邢 讼韵蚁驼 辛伺 犹拍张 团帜 髁凵 漳撂盼钨 讼托乩耘蚁, 幸嫌韵 捎邢特谡试 犹拍绽菡 讼土文:

[root@deep /]# traceroute www.redhat.com
traceroute to www.portal.redhat.com (206.132.41.202),
           30 hops max, 38 byte packets
1  ppp005.108-253-207.mtl.mt.videotron.net (207.253.108.5) 98.584 ms
   1519.806 ms 109.911 ms
2  fa5-1-0.rb02-piex.videotron.net (207.96.135.1) 149.888 ms 89.830 ms
   109.914 ms
3  ia-tlpt-bb01-fec1.videotron.net (207.253.253.53) 149.896 ms 99.873 ms
   139.930 ms
4  ia-cduc-bb02-ge2-0.videotron.net (207.253.253.61) 99.897 ms 169.863 ms
   329.926 ms
5  if-4-1.core1.Montreal.Teleglobe.net (207.45.204.5) 409.895 ms 1469.882 ms
   109.902 ms
6  if-1-1.core1.NewYork.Teleglobe.net (207.45.223.109) 189.920 ms 139.852 ms
   109.939 ms
7  206.132.150.133 (206.132.150.133) 99.902 ms 99.724 ms 119.914 ms
8  pos1-0-2488M.wr2.CLE1.gblx.net (206.132.111.89) 189.899 ms 129.873 ms
   129.934 ms
9  pos8-0-2488m.wr2.kcy1.globalcenter.net (206.132.111.82) 169.890 ms
   179.884 ms 169.933 ms
10 206.132.114.77 (206.132.114.77) 199.890 ms 179.771 ms 169.928 ms
11 pos8-0-2488M.wr2.SFO1.gblx.net (206.132.110.110) 159.909 ms 199.959 ms
   179.837 ms
12 pos1-0-2488M.cr1.SNV2.gblx.net (208.48.118.118) 179.885 ms 309.855 ms
   299.937 ms
13 pos0-0-0-155M.hr2.SNV2.gblx.net (206.132.151.46) 329.905 ms 179.843 ms
   169.936 ms
14 206.132.41.202 (206.132.41.202) 2229.906 ms 199.752 ms 309.927 ms

悄 www.redhat.com 赏 商 ip-聊遗 漳撂盼蜗窍 认釉.

肓 踪紫纳载 瘟 芩伊 铀咸厮 伊 下伊萘躺迂 髁叟驼 着-优易乓.

下 沦釉蚁 踪着釉 奚犹 下伊菖紊 髁叟驼 着-优易乓, 捎邢特谡试 犹拍绽菡 讼土文:

[root@deep /]# grep "GET / HTTP" /var/log/httpd/access_log | wc -l
467

锬蜗滓磐盼瘟 嫌粤蜗姿 孪特凵斡宰 优易捎献.

肓 root 髻 拖峙耘 嫌粤蜗咨载 闻铀咸厮 优易捎献 夏蜗滓磐盼蜗 犹拍绽菖 讼土文鲜:

[root@deep /]# killall httpd smbd nmbd slapd named

髻叟幸勺拍盼瘟 讼土文 嫌粤蜗咨 Apache-优易乓, Samba-优易捎, LDAP-优易乓 DNS-优易乓 酉显着杂宰盼蜗.

柘陨耘 拊下 子湃 邢特谙琢耘膛 鬃乓日 耘彝晌撂 踪紫纳躺迂 蘖淤?

蚺牧嗽梢帐耘 屏侍 profile (vi /etc/profile) 南铝棕耘 犹拍绽菡 釉蚁苏:

PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -ne "\0337\033[2;999r\033[1;1H\033[00;44m\033[K"\
               `date`"\033[00m\0338"'

槲釉撂躺蚁琢瘟 躺 lsof 瘟 髁叟 优易乓?

逵躺 闻, 韵 晌釉撂躺艺试 排 踪邢涛稍 讼土文 lsof -i. 髻 南讨钨 邢陶奚载 有捎纤 邢以献, 讼韵屹 显艘僭 瘟 髁叟 土凵闻. 鹨锨伊屯 lsof, 茉 邢膛谖裂 赵商稍, 讼韵伊 窍紫疑, 肆松 幸厦庞淤 犹折晾 瘟 肆讼 邢以:

[root@deep /]# lsof -i
COMMAND  PID  USER FD  TYPE DEVICE NODE NAME
Inetd    344  root 4u  IPv4  327   TCP  *:ssh (LISTEN)
sendmail 389  root 4u  IPv4  387   TCP  *:smtp (LISTEN)
smbd     450  root 5u  IPv4  452   TCP  deep.openna.com:netbios-ssn (LISTEN)
nmbd     461  root 5u  IPv4  463   UDP  *:netbios-ns
nmbd     461  root 6u  IPv4  465   UDP  *:netbios-dgm
nmbd     461  root 8u  IPv4  468   UDP  deep.openna.com:netbios-ns
nmbd     461  root 9u  IPv4  470   UDP  deep.openna.com:netbios-dgm
named    2599 root 4u  IPv4  3095  UDP  *:32771
named    2599 root 20u IPv4  3091  UDP  localhost.localdomain:domain
named    2599 root 21u IPv4  3092  TCP  localhost.localdomain:domain (LISTEN)
named    2599 root 22u IPv4  3093  UDP  deep.openna.com:domain
named    2599 root 23u IPv4  3094  TCP  deep.openna.com:domain (LISTEN)

姓铀 讼土文 瘟 漳撂盼蜗 优易乓 屡 邢乃汤夼紊 闻驼 夼遗 幸显纤咸 ssh.

胂土文 ssh 粤酥 捎邢特谡旁友 奶 踪邢涛盼裳 讼土文 瘟 漳撂盼蜗 由釉磐 屡 邢乃汤夼紊 闻. 蚺谡特粤再 踪邢涛盼裳 讼土文 踪紫难杂 瘟 纳有膛, 讼卧蚁特 紫谧伊萘旁友 瘟 滔肆特握 由釉磐. 庞 幸勺拍盼 幸赏乓, 讼韵屹 踪紫纳 子湃 邢特谙琢耘膛, 邢乃汤夼挝偃 由釉磐:

[admin@deep /]$ ssh mail.openna.com who
admin@mail.openna.com's password:
root    tty1    Dec   2   14:45
admin   tty2    Dec   2   14:45
wahib   pts/0   Dec   2   11:38

着役盼膳 赏盼 屏侍.

袅抡躺蚁琢紊 纤衔蘖紊 赏盼 屏侍 邢谧咸雅 髁 鬃夏稍 韵特讼 蘖釉 赏盼. 髯拍稍 瘟蘖滔 赏盼 屏侍 瘟滞稍 颂磷邵 [TAB], 赏 抡呐 诹着役盼 诹 髁. 逵躺 孪特叟, 夼 夏晌 屏侍 商 幸锨伊屯 邢娜夏言, 韵 伊谀劣杂 谧账献鲜 由俏撂, 诹耘 邢犹 邢自弦蜗窍 瘟至陨 [TAB] 髻 邢陶奚耘 有捎纤 邢娜夏演扇 赏盼.

笮琶闪特钨 由妥咸.

髻 拖峙耘 沦釉蚁 踪邢涛稍 诹牧奚, 讼韵屹 蘖釉 呐塘旁, 捎邢特谡 "沦釉屹 颂磷邵": 夏握 商 孪特叟 颂磷邵, 瘟至陨 讼韵屹 瘟 颂磷闪哉遗 踪邢涛雅 诹牧拚. 盍幸赏乓, 有琶闪特钨 由妥咸 拖钦 沦载 捎邢特谙琢钨 髁叟 讼土文蜗 下咸限伺 犹拍绽萆 下伊谙:

Control-d: 逵躺 髻 瘟认纳耘迂 讼土文蜗 晌耘倚遗粤韵遗 瘟滞旁 control-d, 韵 显颂擂稍庞 显 由釉磐 (logged off).

Control-l: 逵躺 髻 瘟认纳耘迂 讼土文蜗 晌耘倚遗粤韵遗 瘟滞旁 control-l, 韵 髻 限捎陨耘 芩伊.

?:  且招邢紫 由妥咸. 镂 踪釉招僚 肆 拍晌赊钨 由妥咸. 逵躺 髻 诹牧纳耘 讼土文蜗 釉蚁伺 拊-韵 邢南挛吓 m?b, 韵 Linux 瘟誓旁 mob, mib, mub 汤沦 囊涨膳 抡俗/蒙埔 团帜 a-z 0-9.

*: 显 由妥咸 踪釉招僚 肆 汤沦 囊涨膳 由妥咸. 逵躺 髻 诹牧纳耘 mi*, 韵 抡呐 捎邢特谙琢载友 mit, mim, miiii, miya 子 囊涨膳 犹献, 瘟奚瘟垒膳友 mi. m*l 酉显着杂宰张 mill, mull, ml 子磐, 拊 瘟奚瘟旁友 m 诹肆无勺僚杂 瘟 l.

[]: 镄遗呐萄旁 纳列邻衔. 逵躺 诹幸鳞勺晾 m[o,u,i]m, 韵 Linux 闲遗呐萄旁: mim, mum, mom, 庞躺 诹牧: m[a-d]m, 韵 茉 酉显着杂宰张: mam, mbm, mcm, mdm. 笊妥咸 [], ? * 下俎蜗 捎邢特谡涝友 幸 讼猩蚁琢紊, 漳撂盼缮 幸嫌拖砸 肆粤滔窍.

礤铋. Linux 子 诹咨由 显 遗巧釉伊 由妥咸献. 橼-诹 茉锨 Bill bill 茉 闻 夏蜗 韵峙.  邢谧咸雅 纫廖稍 夏蜗 团釉 伊谖倥 屏侍 赏盼镣 Bill, bill, bIll, biLl . . 袅 拊, 幸 伊孪耘 [], 髻 南讨钨 闲遗呐躺载 诹翘磷钨 抡俗, 庞躺 汤孪 赏盼 屏侍 衔 拖钦 捎邢特谙琢载友.

鹣捎

 

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